Heimildir

Heimilidalisti – sjá neðar

Prepared by: Christina Lynch

Current WDB References 1/24/08

EPA

Mendell MJ, Cozen M, Lei-Gomez Q, Brightman HS, Erdmann CA, Girman JR, Womble SE. Indicators of moisture and ventilation system contamination in U.S. office buildings as risk factors for respiratory and mucous membrane symptoms: analyses of the EPA BASE data. J Occup Environ Hyg 2006; 3(5): 225-233.

Mudarri D, Fisk WJ. Public health and economic impact of dampness and mold. Indoor Air 2007; 17: 226-236.

NIEHS Public Health Monograph June 2007

Weinhold B. A spreading concern on inhalational health effects of mold.Environmental Health Perspectives 2007; 115(6): A300-305.

Wu F, Jacobs D, Mitchell C, Miller D, Karol MH. Improving indoor environmental quality for public health: impediments and policy recommendations. Environmental Health Perspectives 2007; 115(6): 953-957.

Mitchell CS, Zhang J, Sigsgaard T, Jantunen M, Lioy PJ, Samson R, Karol MH. Current state of the science: health effects and indoor environmental quality. Environmental Health Perspectives 2007; 115(6): 958-964.

Loftness V, Hakkinen B, Adan O, Nevalainen A. Elements that contribute to healthy building design. Environmental Health Perspectives 2007; 115(6): 965-970.

Wu F, Takaro TK. Childhood asthma and environmental interventions. Environmental Health Perspectives 2007; 115(6): 971-975.

Jacobs DE, Kelly T, Sobolewski J. Linking public health, housing and indoor environmental policy: successes and challenges at local and federal agencies in the United States. Environmental Health Perspectives 2007; 115(6): 976-981.

Adan OCG, Ng-A-Tham J, Hanke W, Sigsgaard T, van de Hazel P, Wu F. In search of a common European approach to a healthy indoor environment. Environmental Health Perspectives 2007; 115(6): 983-988.

Causality

Ryan PB, Burke TA, Hubal EAC, Cura JJ, McKone TE. Using biomarkers to inform cumulative risk assessment. Environmental Health Perspectives 2007; 115(5): 833-840.

Hill AB. The environment and disease: association or causation? Proceedings of Royal Society of Medicine Section of Occupational Medicine 01/14/65; 295-230.

Kundi M. Causality and the interpretation of epidemiologic evidence Environmental Health Perspectives 2006; 114(7): 969-974.

Phillips CV, Goodman KJ. The missed lessons of Sir Austin Bradford Hill. Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations 2004; 1(3): 1-5.

Carbone M, Klein G, Gruber J, Wong M. Modern criteria to establish human cancer etiology. Cancer Research 2004; 64: 5518-5524.

Altman DG, Bland JM. Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence. BMJ 1995; 311: 485.

Maldonado G, Greenland S. Estimating causal effects. International Journal of Epidemiology 2002; 31: 422-429.

Broderick G, Craddock RC, Whistler T, Taylor R, Klimas N, Unger ER. Identifying illness parameters in fatiguing syndromes using classical projection methods. Pharmacogenomics 2006; 7(3): 407-419.

VCS

Frederick R, Furtaw Jr EJ, Haugland RA, Hudnell K, Kolb L, Menetrez MY, Macler B, Selgrade MK, Shoemaker JA, Van Emon JM, Vesper SJ, Ward MW, Wymer LJ. Exposure of children to indoor molds. EPA Science Forum 2004; http://cfpub2.epa.gov/ordpubs/nerlpubs/nerlpubs_mcear_2004.cfm?ActType=Pu

CDC/New Orleans

Chew GL, Wilson J, Rabito FA, Grimdley F, Iqbal S, Reponen T, Muilenberg ML, Thorne PS, Dearborn DG, Morley RL. Mold and endotoxin levels in the aftermath of hurricane Katrina: a pilot of homes in New Orleans undergoing renovation. Env Health Perspectives 2006; 114: 1883-1889.

Redd SC. State of the science on molds and human health. 2002; 1-10.

Rao CY, Riggs MA, Chew GL, Muilenburg ML, Thorne PS, Van Sickle D, Dunn KH, Brown C. Characterization of airborne molds, endotoxins, and glucans in homes in New Orleans after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2007; 73(5): 1630-1634.

Verhoeff AP, Burge HA. Health risk assessment of fungi in home environments. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1997; 78: 544-556.

Gent JF, Ren P, Belanger K, Triche E, Bracken MB, Holford TR, Leaderer BP. Levels of household mold associated with respiratory symptoms in the first year of life in a cohort at risk for asthma. Environmental Health Perspectives 2002; 110(12): A781-A786.

Solomon GM, Hjelmroos-Koski M, Rotkin-Ellman M, Hammond SK. Airborne mold and endotoxin concentrations in New Orleans, Louisiana, after flooding, October through November 2005. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006; 114(9): 1381-1386.

Brandt M, Burkhart J, Burton NC, Cox-Ganser J, Damon S, Falk H, Fridkin S, Garbe P, Kreiss K, McGeehin M, Morgan J, Page E, Rao C, Redd S, Sinks T, Trout D, Wallingford KM, Warnock D, Weissman DN. Mold Prevention strategies and possible health effects in the aftermath of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. CDC October 2005; 1-45.

Canada Ministry of Health Minister of Health. Residential indoor air quality guideline for moulds. 2007-03-31 Canada Gazette Part I, 141(13).

ERMI

Lau A, Chen S, Sorrell T, Carter D, Malik R, Martin P, Halliday C. Devlopment and clinical application of a panfungal PCR assay to detect and identify fungal DNA in tissue specimens. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2007; 45(2): 380-385.

Park JH, Cox-Ganser J, Rao C, Kreiss K. Fungal and endotoxin measurements in dust associated with respiratory symptoms in a water-damaged office building. Indoor Air 2006; 16(3): 192-203.

Vesper SJ, McKinstry C, Haugland RA, Iossofova Y, Lemasters G, Levin L, Hersgey GKK, Villareal M, Bernstein DI, Lockey J, Reponen T. Relative moldiness index as predictor of childhood respiratory illness. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 2006; 1-7.

Vesper S. Developing the EPA relative moldiness index based on mold-specific quantitative PCR. The Synergist 2006; 39-43.

Vesper SJ, McKinstry C, Yang C, Haugland RA, Kercsmar CM, Yike I, Schluchter MD, Kirchner HL, Sobolewski J, Allan TM, Dearborn DG. Specific molds associated with asthma in water-damaged homes. JOEM 2006; 48(8): 852-858.

Association Studies

Bernstein JA, Alexis N, Bacchus H, Bernstein IL, Fritz P, Horner E, Li N, Mason S, Nel A, Oullette J, Reijula K, Reponen T, Seltzer J, Smith A, Tarlo SM. The health effects of nonindustrial indoor air pollution. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2008; 1-7.

Ammann HM. Is indoor mold contamination a threat to health? Washington State Dept. of Health.

Chao HJ, Schwartz J, Milton DK, Burge HA. Populations and determinants of airborne fungi in large office buildings. Environmental Health Perspectives 110(8): 777-782.

Wilson SC, Carriker CG, Brasel TL, Karunasens E, Douglas DR, Wu C, Andriychuk LA, Fogle MR, Martin JM, Straus DC. Culturability and toxicity of sick building syndrome-related fungi over time. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 2004; 1: 500-504.

Park JH, Cox-Ganser JM, Kreiss K, White SK, Rao CY. Hydrophilic fungi and ergosterol associated with respiratory illness in a water-damaged building. Environmental Health Perspectives 2008; 116(1): 45-50.

Meyer HW, Jensen KA, Nielsen KF, Kildeso J, Norn S, Permin H, Poulsen LK, Malling HJ, Gravesen S, Gyntelberg F. Double blind placebo controlled exposure to molds: exposure system and clinical results. Indoor Air 2005; 15 Suppl 10: 73-80.

Kildeso J, Wurtz H, Nielsen KF, Kruse P, Wilkins K, Thrane U, Gravesen S, Nielsen PA, Schneider T. Determination of fungi spore release from wet building materials. Indoor Air 2003; 13(2): 148-155.

Sivasubramani SK, Niemeier RT, Reponen T, Grinshpun SA. Assessment of the aerosolization potential for fungal spores in moldy homes. Indoor Air 2004; 14(6): 405-412.

MacIntosh DL, Brightman HS, Baker BJ, Myatt TA, Stewart JH, McCarthy JF. Airborne fungal spores in a cross-sectional study of office buildings. J Occup Environ Hyg 2006; 3(7): 379-389.

Kuhn RC, Trimble MW, Hofer V, Lee M, Nassof RS. Prevalence and airborne spore levels of Stachybotrys spp. in 200 houses with water incursions in Houston, Texas. Can J Microbiol 2005; 51(1): 25-28.

Barnes CS, Dowling P, Van Osdol T, Portnoy J. Comparison of indoor fungal spore levels before and after professional home remediation. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2007; 98(3): 262-268.

Khan NN, Wilson BL. An environmental assessment of mold concentrations and potential mycotoxins exposures in the greater Southeast Texas area. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2003; 38(12): 2759-2772.

Santilli J, Rockwell W. Fungal contamination of elementary schools: a new environmental hazard. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2003; 90(2): 203-208.

Savilahti R, Uitti J, Laippala P, Husman T, Roto P. Respiratory morbidity among children following renovation of a water-damaged school. Arch Environ Health 2000; 55(6): 405-410.

Wilson SC, Carriker CG, Brasel TL, Karunasena E, Douglas DR, Wu C, Andriychuk LA, Fogle MR, Martin JM, Straus DC. Culturability and toxicity of sick building syndrome-related fungi over time. J Occup Env Hygiene 2004; 1: 500-504.

Kercsmar CM, Dearborn DG, Schluchter M, Xue L, Kirchner HL, Sobolewski J, Greenberg SJ, Vesper SJ, Allan T. Reduction in asthma morbidity in children as a result of home remediation aimed at moisture sources. Env Health Perspectives 2006; 114: 1574-1580.

Horner, Elliott W. The damp building effect: understanding needed, not more debate. Ann of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology 2005; 94: 213-215.

Park JH, Schleiff PL, Attfield MD, Cox-Ganser JM, Kreiss K. Building-related respiratory symptoms can be predicted with semi-quantitative indices of exposure to dampness and mold. Indoor Air 2004; 14: 425-433.

Korpinen EL. Studies on Stachybotrys alternans. Acta Path Microbiol Scand 1974; 82: 457-464.

Shenassa ED, Daskalakis C, Liebhaber A, Braubach M, Brown MJ. Dampness and mold in the home and depression: an examination of mold-related illness and perceived control of one’s home as possible depression pathways. American Journal of Public Health 2007; 97(10): 1-7.

Park JH, Cox-Ganser J, Rao C, Kreiss K. Fungal and endotoxin measurements in dust associated with respiratory symptoms in a water-damaged office building. Indoor Air 2006; 16(3): 192-203.

Hope AP, Simon RA. Excess dampness and mold growth in homes: an evidence-based review of the aeroirritant effect and its potential causes. Allergy Asthma Proc 2007; 28(3): 262-270.

Bornehag CG, Blomquist G, Gyntelberg F, Jarvholm B, Malmberg P, Nordvall L, Nielsen A, Pershagen G, Sundell J. Dampness in buildings and health. Nordic interdisciplinary review of the scientific evidence on associations between exposure to “dampness” in buildings and health effects (NORDDAMP). Indoor Air 2001; 11(2): 72-86.King N, Auger P. Indoor air quality, fungi and health. How do we stand? Can Fam Physician 2002; 48: 298-302.

Rao CY, Cox-Ganser JM, Chew GL, Doekes G, White S. Use of surrogate markers of biological agents in air and settled dust samples to evaluate a water-damaged hospital. Indoor Air 2005; 15 Suppl 9: 89-97.

Hodgson MJ, Morey P, Leung WY, Morrow L, Miller D, Jarvis BB, Robins H, Halsey JF, Storey. Building-associated pulmonary disease from exposure to Stachybotrys chartarum and Aspergillus versicolor. J Occup Environ Med 1998; 40(3): 241-249.

Reijula K, Tuomi T. Mycotoxins of aspergilli: exposure and health effects. Front Biosci 2003; 8: s232-235.

Skaug MA, Eduard W, Stormer FC. Ochratoxin A in airborne dust and fungal conidia. Mycopathologia 2001; 151(2): 93-98.

Sebastian A, Larsson L. Characterization of the microbial community in indoor environments: a chemical-analytical approach. Appl Envir Microbiol 2003; 69: 3103-3109.

Horner WE, Worthan AG, Morey PR. Air- and dust mycoflora in houses free of water damage and fungal growth. Appl Environ Microbiol 2004; 70: 6394-6400.

Murtoniemi T, Nevalainen A, Suutari M, Toivola M, Komulainen H, Hirvonen MR. Induction of cytotoxicity and production of inflammatory mediators in raw 264.7 macrophages by spores grown on six different plasterboards. Inhal Toxicol 2001; 13(3): 233-247.

Bloom E, Bal K, Nyman E, Must A, Larsson L. Mass spectrometry-based strategy for direct detection and quantification of some mycotoxins produced by Stachybotrys and Aspergillus spp. in indoor environments. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2007; 73(13): 4211-4217.

Boutin-Forzano S, Charpin-Kadouch C, Chabbi S, Bennedjai N, Dumon H, Charpin D. Wall relative humidity: a simple and reliable index for predicting Stachybotrys chartarum infestation in dwellings. Indoor Air 2004; 14(3): 196-199.

Menzies D, Comtois P, Pasztor J, Nunes F, Hanley JA. Aeroallergens and work- related respiratory symptoms among office workers. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998; 101(1): 38-44.

Meyer HW, Wurtz H, Suadicani P, Valbjern O, Sigsgaard T, Gyntelberg F. Molds in floor dust and building-related symptoms among adolescent school children: a problem for boys only? Indoor Air 2005; 15(Suppl 10): 17-24.

Bornehag G, Sundell J, Sigsgaard T. Dampness in buildings and health (DBH): report from an ongoing epidemiological investigation on the association between indoor environmental factors and health effects among children in Sweden. Indoor Air 2004; 14(Suppl 7): 59-66.

Andersson MA, Nikulin M, Koljajg U, Andersson MC, Rainey F, Reijula K, Hintikka EL, Salkinojia-Salonen M. Bacteria, molds, and toxins in water-damaged building materials. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 1997; 63(2): 387-393.

Dales RE, Burnett R, Zwanenburg H. Adverse health effects among adults exposed to home dampness and molds. Am Rev Respir Dis 1991; 143: 505-509.

Petola J, Andersson MA, Haahtela T, Mussalo-Rauhamaa H, Rainey FA, Kroppenstedt RM, Samsom RA, Salkinoja-Salonen MS. Toxic-metabolite-producing bacteria and fungus in an indoor environment. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2001; 67(7): 3269-3274.

Page EH, Trout DB. The role of Stachybotrys mycotoxins in building-related illness. AIHAJ 2001; 62: 644-648.

Wan GH, Li CS. Dampness, airway inflammation and systemic symptoms in office building workers. Archives of Environmental Health 1999; 54(1): 58-63.

Mahooti-Brooks N, Storey E, Yang C, Simcox NJ, Turner W, Hodgson M. Characterization of mold and moisture indicators in the home. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 2004; 1: 826-839.

Cox-Ganser JM, White SK, Jones R, Hilsbos K, Storey E, Enright PL, Rao CY, Kreiss K. Respiratory morbidity in office workers in a water-damaged building. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005; 113(4): 485-490.

Gunnbjornsdottir MI, Franklin KA, Norback D, Bjornsson E, Gisason D, Lindberg E, Svanes C, Omenaas E, Norrman E, Jogi R, Jensen EJ, Dahlman-Hoglund A, Janson C. Prevalence and incidence of respiratory symptoms in relation to indoor dampness: the RHINE study. Thorax 2006; 61: 221-225.

Jacob B, Ritz B, Gehring U, Koch A, Bischof W, Wichmann HE, Heinrich J. Indoor exposure to molds and allergic sensitization. Environmental Health Perspectives 2002; 110(7): 647-653.

Gunnbjornsdottir MI, Norback D, Plaschke P, Norrman E, Bjornsson E, Janson C. The relationship between indicators of building dampness and respiratory health in young Swedish adults. Respir Med 2003; 94(4): 302-307.

Kyle AD, Woodruff TJ, Axelrad DA. Integrated assessment of environment and health: America’s children and the environment. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006; 114(4): 447-452.

Weschler CJ, Wells JR, Poppendieck D, Hubbard H, Pearce TA. Workgroup report: indoor chemistry and health. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006; 114(3): 442-504.

Miller JD, Rand TG, Jarvis BB. Stachybotrys chartarum: cause of human disease or media darling? Medical Mycology 2003; 41: 271-291.

Jaakkola MS, Nordman H, Piipari R, Uitti J, Laitinen J, Karjalainen A, Hahtola P, Jaakkola JJK. Indoor dampness and molds and development of adult-onset asthma: a population-based incident case-control study. Environmental Health Perspectives 2002; 110(5): 543-547.

Gent JF, Ren P, Belanger K, Triche E, Bracken MB, Holford TR, Leaderer BP. Levels of household mold associated with respiratory symptoms in the first year of life in a cohort at risk for asthma. Environmental Health Perspectives 2002; 110(12); A781-A792.

Apostolakos MJ, Rossmoore H, Beckett WS. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis from ordinary residential exposures. Environmental Health Perspectives 2001; 109(9): 979-981.

Trout D, Bernstein J, Martinez K, Biagini R, Wallingford K. Bioaerosol lung damage in a worker with repeated exposure to fungi in a water-damaged building. Environmental Health Perspectives 2001; 109(6): 641-644.

Menetrez MY. Emission exposure model for the transport of toxic mold. Indoor and Built Environment 2004; 13(1); 75-82.

Craner J. Building-related illness in occupants of mold-contaminated houses: a case series. Eastern New York Occupational & Environmental Health Center 1999; 146-157.

Engelhart S, Loock A, Skutlarek D, Sagunski H, Lommel A, Farber H, Exner M. Occurrence of toxigenic Aspergillus versicolor isolates and sterigmatocystin in carpet dust from damp indoor environments. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2002; 68(8): 3886-3890.

Murtoniemi T, Nevalainen A, Hirvonen MR. Effect of plasterboard composition on Stachybotrys chartarum growth and biological activity of spores. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2003; 69(7): 3751-3757.

Shelton BG, Kirkland KH, Flanders WD, Morris GK. Profiles of airborne fungi in buildings and outdoor environments in the United States. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2002; 68(4): 1743-1753.

Sebastian A, Larson L. Characterization of the microbial community in indoor environments: a chemical-analytical approach. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2003; 69(6): 3103-3109.

Burge HA. Health effects of biological contaminants. Indoor Air and Human Health Chapter 10 CRC Press 1996; 171-178.

Martinez KF, Rao CY, Burton NC. Exposure assessment and analysis for biological agents. Grana 2004; 43: 193-208.

Pessi AM, Suonketo J, Pentti M, Kurkilahti M, Peltola K, Rantio-Lehtimaki A. Microbial growth inside insulated external walls as an indoor air biocontamination source. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2002; 68(2): 963-967.

Krauter P, Biermann A. Reaerosolization of fluidized spores in ventilation systems. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2007; 73(7): 2165-2172.

Thrasher JD, Kilburn K, Immes N. Indoor environment resulting from water intrusion. Perspectives 2006; 4-53.

Flannigan B, McCabe EM, McGarry F. Allergenic and toxigenic micro-organisms in houses. Journal of Applied Bacteriology Symposium Supplement 1991; 70: 61S-73S.

Verhoeff AP, van Strien RT, van Wijnen JH, Brunekreef B. Damp housing and childhood respiratory symptoms: the role of sensitization to dust mites and molds. American Journal of Epidemiology 1995; 141(2): 103-109.

Malloy CD, Marr JS. Mycotoxins and public health: a review. J Public Health Management Practice 1997; 3(3): 61-69.

Smoragiewucz W, Cossette B, Boutard A, Krzystyniak K. Trichothecene mycotoxins in the dust of ventilation systems in office buildings. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1993; 65: 113-117.

25. Johanning E, Biagini R, Hull D, Morey P, Jarvis B, Landsbergis P. Health and immunology study following exposure to toxigenic fungi (Stachybotrys chartarum) in a water-damaged office environment. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1996; 68: 207-218.

26. Croft WA, Jarvis BB, Yatawara CS. Airborne outbreak of trichothecene toxicosis. Atmospheric Environment 1986; 20(3): 549-552.

27. Johanning E, Landsbergis P, Gareis M, Yang CS, Olmsted E. Clinical experience and results of a sentinel health investigation related to indoor fungal exposure. Environmental Health Perspectives 1999; 107(3): 489-494.

28. Sorenson WG. Fungal spores: hazardous to health? Environmental Health Perspectives 1999; 107(3): 469-472.

29. Rautiala S, Reponen T, Hyvarinen A, Nevalainen A, Vehvilainen A, Kalliokoski P. Exposure to airborne microbes during the repair of moldy buildings. American Industrial Hygience Asso Journal 1996; 57: 279-284.

30. Tuomi T, Reijula K, Johnsson T, Hemminki K, Hintikka EL, Lindroos O, Kalso S, Koukila-Kahkola P, Mussalo-Rauhamaa H, Haajtela T. Mycotoxins in crude building materials from water-damaged buildings. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2000; 66(5): 1899-1904.

Redlich CA, Sparer J, Cullen MR. Sick-building syndrome. Lancet 1997; 349: 1013-1015.

Mycotoxin Effects

Nikulin M, Pasanen AL, Berg S, Hintikka EL. Stachybotrys atra growth and toxin production in some building material and fodder under different relative humidities. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 1994; 60(9): 3421-3424.

Nielsen KF, Holm G, Uttrup LP, Nielsen PA. Mould growth on building materials under low water activities. Influence of humidity and temperature on fungal growth and secondary metabolism. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 2004; 54: 325-336.

Kouadio JH, Mobio TA, Baudrimont I, Moukha S, Dano SD, Creppy EE. Comparative study of cytotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by deoxynivalenol, zearalenone or fumonisin B1 in human intestinal cell line Caco-2. Toxicology 2005; 213(1-2): 56-65.

Kouadio JH, Dano SD, Moukha S, Mobio TA, Creppy EE. Effects of combinations of Fusarium mycotoxins on the inhibition of macromolecular synthesis, malondialdehyde levels, DNA methylation and fragmentation, and viability in Caco-2 cells. Toxicon 2007; 49(3): 306-317.

Kovacikova Z, Tatrai E, Pieckova E, Tulinska J, Pivovarova Z, Matausic-Pisl M, Kuricova M, Wsolova L. An in vitro study of the toxic effects of Stachybotrys chartarum metabolites on lung cells. ATLA 2007; 35: 47-52.

Tsunawaki S, Yoshida LS, Nishida S, Kobayashi T, Shimoyama T. Fungal metabolite gliotoxin inhibits assembly of the human respiratory burst NADPH oxidase. Infection and Immunity 2004; 72(6): 3373-3382.

Bloom E, Bal K, Nyman E, Must A, Larsson L. Mass spectrometry-based strategy for direct detection and quantification of some mycotoxins produced by Stachybotrys and Aspergillus spp. in indoor environments. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2007; 73(13): 4211-4217.

Ricelli A, Baruzzi F, Solfrizzo M, Morea M, Fanizzi FP. Biotransformation of patulin by Gluconobacter oxydans. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2007; 73(3): 785-792.

Saenz JB, Doggett TA, Haslam DB. Identification and characterization of small molecules that inhibit intracellular toxin transport. Infection and Immunity 2007; 75(9): 4552-4561.

Park JH, Cox-Ganser J, Rao C, Kreiss K. Fungal and endotoxin measurements in dust associated with respiratory symptoms in a water-damaged office building. Indoor Air 2006; 16(3): 192-203.

Meloche JL, Smith TK. Altered tissue amino acid metabolism in acute T-2 toxicosis. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1995; 210(3): 260-265.

Smoragiewicz W, Cossette B, Boutard A, Krzystyniak K. Trichothecene mycotoxins in the dust of ventilation systems in office buildings. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1993; 65(2): 113-117.

Charpin-Kadouch C, Maurel G, Felipo R, Queralt J, Ramadour M, Henri D, Garans M, Botta A, Charpin D. Mycotoxin identification in moldy dwellings. Journal of Applied Toxicology 2006; 26: 475-479.

Yike I, Distler Am, Ziady AG, Dearborn DG. Mycotoxin adducts on human serum albumin: biomarkers of exposure to Stachybotrys chartarum. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006; 114(8): 1221-1226.

Nieminen SM, Karki R, Auriola S, Toivola M, Laatsch H, Laatikainen R, Hyvarinen A, von Wright A. Isolation and identification of Aspergillus fumigatus mycotoxins on growth medium and some building materials. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2002; 68(10): 4871-4875.

Brasel TL, Campbell AW, Demers RE, Ferguson BS, Fink J, Vojdani A, Wilson SC, Straus DC. Detection of trichothecene mycotoxins in sera from individuals exposed to Stachybotrys chartarum in indoor environments. Archives of Environmental Health 2004; 59(6): 317-323.

Brasel TL, Martin JM, Carriker CG, Wilson SC, Straus DC. Detection of airborne Stachybotrys chartarum macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxins in the indoor environment. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2005; 71(11): 7376-7388.

Panaccione DG, Coyle CM. Abundant respirable ergot alkaloids from the common airborne fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2005; 71(6): 3106-3111.

Bennett JW, Klich M. Mycotoxins. Clin Microbiol Rev 2003; 16(3): 497-516.

Rao CY, Brain JD Burge HA. Reduction of pulmonary toxicity of Stachybotrys chartarum spores by methanol extraction of mycotoxins. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2000; 66(7): 2817-2821.

Wannemacher RW, Wiener SL. Trichothecene Mycotoxins. Textbook of Military Medicine: Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare: Chapter 34.

Creasia DA, Thurman JD, Jones J, Nealley ML, York CG, Wannemacher RW, Bunner DL. Acute inhalation toxicity of T-2 mycotoxin in mice. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 1987: 8: 230-235.

Karunasena E, Cooley JD, Douglas DR, Straus DC. Protein translation inhibition by Stachybotrys chartarum conidia with and without the mycotoxins containing polysaccharide matrix. Mycopathologia 2004; 158: 87-97.

Peltola J, Ritieni A, Mikkola R, Grigoriev PA, Pocafalvi G, Andersson MA, Salkinoja-Salonen MS. Biological effects of Trichoderma harzianum peptaibols on mammalian cells. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2004; 70(8): 4996-5004.

Neville J, Hodgson M. Background and toxicity on some mycotoxins commonly found in water damaged buildings and outside ambient environment. PK-Jarvis Microbiological, LLC.

Sorenson WG, Frazer DG, Jarvis BB, Simpson J, Robinson VA. Trichothecene mycotoxins in aerosolized conidia of Stachybotrys atra. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 1987; 53(6): 1370-1375.

Etzel RA. Mycotoxins. JAMA 2002; 287(4): 425-428.

Jarvis BB, Salemme J, Morais A. Stachybotrys toxins. 1 Natural Toxins 1995; 3: 10-16.

Yike I, Rand TG, Dearborn DG. Acute inflammatory responses to Stachybotrys chartarum in the lungs of infant rats: time course and possible mechanisms. Toxicol Sci 2005; 84(2): 407-417.

Rand TG, Flemming J, David Miller J, Womiloju TO. Comparison of inflammatory responses in mouse lungs exposed to atranones A and C from Stachybotrys chartarum. J Toxicol Environ Health A 2006; 69(13): 1239-1251.

Rosenblum Lichtenstein JH, Molina RM, Donaghey TC, Brain JD. Strain differences influence murine pulmonary responses to Stachybotrys chartarum. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2006; 35(4): 415-423.

Tuomi T, Reijula K, Johnsson T, Hemminki K, Hintilla EL, Lindroos O, Kalso S, Koukila-Kahkola P, Mussalo-Rauhamaa H, Haahtela T. Mycotoxins in crude building materials from water-damaged buildings. Appl Environ Microbiol 2000; 66(5): 1899-1904.

Nielsen KF, Gravesen S, Nielsen PA, Andersen B, Thrane U, Frisvad JC. Production of mycotoxins on artificially and naturally infested building materials. Mycopathologia 1999; 145(1): 43-56.

Hodgson MJ, Morey P, Leung WY, Morrow L, Miller D, Jarvis BB, Robbins H, Halsey JF, Storey E. Building-associated pulmonary disease from exposure to Stachybotrys chartarum and Aspergillus versicolor. J Occup Environ Med 1998; 40(3): 241-249.

Jarvis BB, Miller JD. Mycotoxins as harmful indoor air contaminants. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2005; 66(4): 367-372.

Fog Nielsen K. Mycotoxin production by indoor molds. Fungal Genet Biol 2003; 39(2): 103-117.

Fiedler K, Schutz E, Geh S. Detection of microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) produced by moulds on various materials. Int J Hyg Environ Health 2001; 204(2-3): 111-121.

Gao P, Martin J. Volatile metabolites produced by three strains of Stachybotrys chartarum cultivated on rice and gypsum board. Appl Occup Environ Hyg 2002; 17(6): 430-436.

Nay Sayers

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Biowarfare

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Hormonal Effects

Bruel KF, Kougias P, Rice PJ, Wei D, De Ponti K, Wang J, Laffan JJ, Li C, Kalbfleisch J, Williams DL. Anterior pituitary cells express pattern recognition receptors for fungal glucans: implications for neuroendocrine immune involvement in response to fungal infections. Neuroimmunomodulation 2004; 11(1): 1-9.

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Gonzalez-Rey E, Chorny A, Delgado M. Regulation of immune tolerance by anti-inflammatory neuropeptides. Nature Reviews Immunology 2007; 7: 52-63.

Fragments

Tucker K, Stolze JL, Kennedy AH, Money NP. Biomechanics of conidial dispersal in the toxic mold Stachybotrys chartarum. [PubMed-in process]

Semmler-Behnke M, Takenaka S, Fertsch S, Wenk A, Seitz J, Mayer P, Oberdorster G, Kreyling WG. Efficient elimination of inhaled nanoparticles from the alveolar region: evidence for interstitial uptake and subsequent reentrainment onto airways epithelium. Environmental Health Perspectives 2007; 115(5): 728-733.

Cho SH, Seo SC, Schmechel D, Grinshpun SA, Reponen T. Aerodynamic characteristics and respiratory deposition of fungal fragments. Atmospheric Environment 2005; 39: 5454-5465.

Brasel TL, Douglas DR, Wilson SC, Straus DC. Detection of airborne Stachybotrys chartarum macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxins on particulates smaller than conidia. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2005; 71(1): 114-122.

Gorny RL, Reponen T, Willeke K, Schmechel D, Robine E, Boissier M, Grinshpun SA. Fungal fragments as indoor air biocontaminants. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2002; 3522-3531.

Gorny RL. Filamentous microorganisms and their fragments in indoor air- a review. Ann Agric Environ Med 2004; 11: 185-197.

Panaccione DG, Coyle CM. Abundant respirable ergot alkaloids from the common airborne fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2005; 71(6): 3106-3111.

Schulz T, Senkpiel K, Ohgke H. Comparison of the toxicity of reference mycotoxins and spore extracts of common indoor moulds. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 2004; 207(3): 267-277.

Actinomycetes

Jensen PR, Williams PG, Oh DC, Zeigler L, Fenical W. Species-specific secondary metabolite production in marine actinomycetes of genus Salinispora. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2007; 73(4): 1146-1152.

Penttinen P, Pelkonen J, Huttunen K, Hirvonen MR. Co-cultivation of Streptomyces of Streptomyces californicus and Stachybotrys chartarum stimulates the production of cytostatic compound(s) with immunotoxic properties. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 2006; 217: 342-351.

Gorny RL, Mainelis G, Grinshpun SA, Willeke K, Dutkiewicz J, Reponen T. Release of Streptomyces albus propagules from contaminated surfaces. Environmental Research 2003; 91: 45-53.

Huttunen K, Pelkonen J, Nielsen KF, Nuutinen U, Jussila J, Hirvonen MR. Synergistic interaction in simultaneous exposure to Streptomyces californicus and Stachybotrys chartarum. Environmental Health Perspectives 2004; 112(4): 659-665.

Martinez A, Kolvek SJ, Hopke J, Yip CLT, Osburne MS. Environmental DNA fragments conferring early and increased sporulation and antibiotic production in Streptomyces species. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2005; 71(3): 1638-1641.

Murtoniemi T, Penttinen P, Nevalainen A, Hirvonen MR. Effects of microbial cocultivation on inflammatory and cytotoxic potential of spores. Inhal Toxicol 2005; 17(12): 681-693.

Penttinen P, Huttunen K, Pelkonen J, Hirvonen MR. The proportions of Streptomyces californicus and Stachybotrys chartarum in simultaneous exposure affect inflammatory responses in mouse RAW264.7 macrophages. Inhal Toxicol 2005; 17(2): 79-85.

Bacteria/Endotoxin

Spaan S, Heederik DJJ, Thorne PS, Wouters IM. Optimization of airborne endotoxin exposure assessment: effects of filter type, transport conditions, extraction solutions, and storage of samples and extracts. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2007; 73(19): 6134-6143.

Zughaier SM, Zimmer SM, Datta A, Carlson RW, Stephens DS. Differential induction of the Toll-like receptor 4-MyD88-dependent and –independent signaling pathways by endotoxins. Infection and Immunity 2006; 74(5): 3077.

Hamon MA, Batsche E, Regnault B, Tham TN, Seveau S, Muchardt C, Cossart P. Histone modifications induced by a family of bacterial toxins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2007; 104(33): 13467-13472.

Medvedev AE, Kopydlowski KM, Vogel SN. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced signal transduction in endotoxin-tolerized mouse macrophages: dysregulation of cytokine, chemokine, and toll-like receptor 2 and 4 gene expression. J Immunol 2000; 164(11): 5564-5574.

Park JH, Cox-Ganser J, Rao C, Kreiss K. Fungal and endotoxin measurements in dust associated with respiratory symptoms in a water-damaged office building. Indoor Air 2006; 16(3): 192-203.

Douwes J, Siebers R, Wouters I, Doekes G, Fitzharris P, Crane J. Endotoxin, (1-> 3)-beta-D-glucans and fungal extra-cellular polysaccharides in New Zealand homes: a pilot study. Ann Agric Environ Med 2006; 13(2): 361-365.

Buttner MP, Cruz-Perez P, Stetzenbach LD. Enhanced detection of surface-associated bacteria in indoor environments by quantitative PCR. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2001; 67(6): 2564-2570.

Inoue KI, Takno H, Yanagisawa R, Hirano S, Sakurai M, Shimada A, Yoshikawa T. Effects of airway exposure to nanoparticles on lung inflammation induced by bacterial endotoxin in mice. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006; 114(9): 1325-1330.

Peltola J, Andersson MA, Haahtela T, Mussalo-Rauhamaa H, Rainey FA, Kroppenstedt RM, Samson RA, Salkinoja-Salonen MS. Toxic-metabolite-producing bacteria and fungus in an indoor environment. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2001; 67(7): 3269-3274.

Gandara A, Mota LC, Flores C, Perez HR, Green CF, Gibbs SG. Isolation of Staphylococcus aureus and antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from residential indoor bioaerosols. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006; 114(12): 1859-1864.

Medvedev AE, Lentschat A, Wahl LM, Golenbock DT, Vogel SN. Dysregulation of LPS-induced Toll-like receptor 4-MyD88 complex formation and IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 activation in endotoxin-tolerant cells. J Immunol 2002; 169(9): 5209-5216.

Dobrovolskaia MA, Medvedev AE, Thomas KE, Cuesta N, Toshchakov V, Ren T, Cody MJ, Michalek SM, Rice NR, Vogel SN. Induction of in vitro reprogramming by Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 agonists in murine macrophages: effects of TLR “homotolerance” versus “heterotolerance” on NF-kappa B signaling pathway components. J Immunol 2003; 170(1): 508-519.

Zhou HR, Harkema JR, Hotchkiss JA, Yan D, Roth RA, Pestka JJ. Lipopolysaccharide and the trichothecene vomitoxin (deoxynivalenol) synergistically induce apoptosis in murine lymphoid organs. Toxicol Sci 2000; 53(2): 253-263.

Islam Z, Moon YS, Zhou HR, King LE, Franker PJ, Pestka JJ. Endotoxin potentiation of trichothecene-induced lymphocyte apoptosis is mediated by up-regulation of glucocorticoids. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2002; 180(1): 43-55.

Islam Z, King LE, Fraker PJ, Pestka JJ. Differential induction of glucocorticoid-dependent apoptosis in murine lymphoid subpopulations in vivo following coexposure to lipopolysaccharide and vomitoxin (deoxynivalenol). Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2003; 182(2): 69-99.

Islam Z, Pestka JJ. Role of IL-1beta in endotoxin potentiation of deoxynivalenol-induced corticosterone response and leukocyte apoptosis in mice. Toxicol Sci 2003; 74(1): 93-102.

Hirvonen MR, Huttunen K, Roponen M. Bacterial strains from moldy buildings are highly potent inducers of inflammatory and cytotoxic effects. Indoor Air 2005; 15 Suppl 9: 65-70.

Environmental RX Health Problems

Menzies D, Popa J, Hanley JA, Rand T, Milton DK. Effect of ultraviolet germicidal lights installed in office ventilation systems on worker’s health and wellbeing: double-blind multiple crossover trial. The Lancet 2003; 362: 1785-1791.

Wilson SC, Wu C, Andriychuk LA, Martin JM, Brasel TL, Jumper CA, Straus DC. Effect of chlorine dioxide gas on fungi and mycotoxins associated with sick building syndrome. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2005; 71(9): 5399-5403.

Kercsmar CM, Dearborne DG, Schluchter M, Xue L, Kirchner L, Sobolewski J, Greenberg SJ, Vesper SJ, Allan T. Reduction in asthma morbidity in children as a result of home remediation aimed at moisture sources. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006; 114(8): 1574-1580.

Levetin E, Shaughnessy R, Rogers CA, Scheir R. Effectiveness of germicidal UV radiation for reducing fungal contamination within air-handling units. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2001; 67(8): 3712-3715.

Bourbeau J, Brisson C, Allaire S. Prevalence of the sick building syndrome symptoms in office workers before and after being exposed to a building with an improved ventilation system. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 1996; 53: 204-210.

Brain and Neuro Injury

Anyanwu EC, Kanu I, Nwachukwu NC, Saleh MA. Chronic environmental exposure to Alternaria tenuis may manifest sytoms of neuropsychological illnesses: A study of 12 cases. J Appl Sci Environ Mgt 2005; 9(3): 45-51.

Martin LJ, Doebler JA, Anthony A. Scanning cytophotometric analysis of brain neuronal nuclear chromatin changes in acute T-2 toxin-treated rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1986; 85(2): 207-214.

Martin LJ, Morse JD, Anthony A. Quantitative cytophotometric analysis of brain neuronal RNA and protein changes in acute T-2 mycotoxin poisoned rats. Toxicon 1986; 24(9): 933-941.

Schoental R. Fusarial mycotoxins and behaviour: possible implications for psychiatric disorder. Br J Psychiatry 1985; 146: 115-119.

Wang J, Fitzpatrick DW, Wilson JR. Effect of T-2 toxin on blood-brain barrier permeability monoamine oxidase activity and protein synthesis in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 1998; 36(11): 955-961.

Patton DE, Duff K, Schoenberg MR, Mold J, Scott JG, Adams RL. Base rates of longitudinal RBANS discrepancies at one- and two-year intervals in community-dwellings older adults. Clin Neuropsychol 2005; 19(1): 27-44.

Baldo JV, Ahmad L, Ruff R. Neuropsychological performance of patients following mold exposure. Appl Neuropsychol 2002; 9(4): 193-202.

Kilburn KH. Indoor mold exposure associated with neurobehavioral and pulmonary impairment: a preliminary report. Arch Environ Health 2003; 58(7): 390-398.

Rea WJ, Didriksen N, Simon TR, Pan Y, Fenyves EJ, Griffiths B. Effects of toxic exposure to molds and mycotoxins in building-related illnesses. Arch Environ Health 2003; 58(7): 399-405.

Gordon WA, Cantor JB, Johanning E, Charatz H, Ashman TA, Breeze JL, Haddad L, Abramowitz S. Cognitive impairment associated with toxigenic fungal exposure: a replication and extension of previous findings. Applied Neuropsychology 2004; 11(2): 65-74.

Sava V, Velasquez A, Reunova O, Sanchez-Ramos J. Acute ochratoxin-A neurotoxicity: kinetics of distribution of the toxin, indices of oxidative stress and DNA repair activities in mouse brain. Accepted Abstract for Platform Presentation Society for Neuroscience, Annual Meeting Washington DC, November 2005.

Sanchez-Ramos J, Sava V. Mycotoxins: can low level, non-lethal exposure result in Parkinsonism? Abstract of invited lecture presented at Worlds Federation of Neurology, Symposium on Neurotoxicology, Sydney, Australia 11/2005.

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Crago BR, Gray MR, Nelson LA, Davis M, Arnold L, Thrasher JD. Psychological, neuropsychological, and electrocortical effects of mixed mold exposure. Archives of Environmental Health 2004; 452-462.

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Fung F, Clark R, Williams S. Stachybotrys, a mycotoxin-producing fungus of increasing toxicologic importance. Clinical Toxicology 1998; 36(1&2): 76-86.

Cooley JD, Wong WC, Jumper CA, Straus DC. Correlation between the prevalence of certain fungi and sick building syndrome. Occup Environ Med 1998; 55: 579-584.

Gene Expression

Hamon MA, Batsche E, Regnault B, Tham TN, Seveau S, Muchardt C, Cossart P. Histone modifications induced by a family of bacterial toxins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2007; 104(33): 13467-13472.

Schneider OD, Weiss AA, Miller WE. Pertussis toxin utilizes proximal components of the T-cell receptor complex to initiate signal transduction events in T cells. Infection and Immunity 2007; 75(8): 4040-4049.

Mbandi E, Pestka JJ. Deoxynivalenol and satratoxin G potentiate proinflammatory cytokine and macrophage inhibitory protein 2 induction by Listeria and Salmonella in the macrophage. Journal of Food Protection 2006; 69(6): 1334-1339.

Edwards TM, Myers JP. Environmental exposures and gene regulation in disease etiology. Environmental Health Perspectives 2007; 115(0): 1264-1270.

Reichelmann H, Duetschle T, Grabow A, Heinzow B, Butte W, Reiter R. Differential response on Mono Mac 6, BEAS-2B, and Jurkat cells to indoor dust. Environmental Health Perspectives 2007; 115(9): 1325-1332.

Flach CF, Qadri F, Bhuiyan TR, Alam NH, Jennische E, Lonnroth I, Holmgren J. Broad up-regulation of innate defense factors during acute cholera. Infect Immun 2007; 75(5): 2343-2350.

Nielsen KF, Huttunen K, Hyvarinen A, Andersen B, Jarvis BB, Hirvonen MR. Metabolite profiles of Stachybotrys isolates from water-damaged buildings and their induction of inflammatory mediators and cytotoxicity in macrophages. Mycopathologia 2002; 154(4): 201-205.

Trinchieri G, Sher A. Cooperation of Toll-like receptor signals in innate immune defence. Nature Reviews Immunology 2007; 7: 179-190.

Romani L. Immunity to fungal infections. Nature Reviews Immunology 2004; 4: 1-13.

Hudson B, Flemming J, Sun G, Rand TG. Comparison of immunomodulator mRNA and protein expression in the lungs of Stachybotrys chartarum spore-exposed mice. J Toxicol Environ Health A 2005; 68(15): 1321-1335.

Yike I, Rand T, Dearborn DG. The role of fungal proteinases in pathophysiology of Stachybotrys chartarum. Mycopathologia 2007; July 3 PMID 17610048.

Rao KMK, Ma JYC, Meighan T, Barger MW, Pack D, Vallyathan V. Time course of gene expression of inflammatory mediators in rat lung after diesel exhaust particle exposure. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005; 113(5): 612-617.

Flach CF, Qudri F, Bhuiyan TR, Alam NH, Jennische E, Lonnroth I, Holmgren J. Broad up-regulation of innate defense factors during acute cholera. Infection and Immunity 2007; 75(5): 2343-2350.

Ryan JC, Dechraoui MYB, Morey JS, Rezvani A, Levin ED, Gordon CJ, Ramsdell JS, van Dolah FM. Genomic and proteomic analysis of whole blood in mice exposed to the marine neurotoxin Pacific ciguatoxin-1.

Kim JM, Kim JS, Lee JY, Kim YJ, Youn NJ, Lim IY, Chee YJ, Oh YK, Kim N, Jung HC, Song IS. Vacuolating cytotoxin Helicobacter pylori water-soluble protein upregulates chemokine expression in human eosinophils via Ca2+ influx, mitochondrial reactive oxygen intermediates, and NF-kB activation. Infection and Immunity 2007; 75(7): 3373-3381.

Pestka JJ, Yan D, King LE. Flow cytometric analysis of the effects of in vitro exposure to vomitoxin (deoxynivalenol) on apoptosis in murine T, B and IgA+ cells. Food Chem Toxicol 1994; 32(12): 1125-1136.

Poapolathep A, Ohtsuka R, Kiaptipattanasakul W, Ishigami N, Nakayana H, Doi K. Nivalenol-induced apoptosis in thymus, spleen and Peyer’s patches of mice. Exp Toxicol Pathol 2002; 53(6): 441-446.

Islam Z, Gray JS, Pestka JJ. P38 Mitogen-activated protein kinase mediates IL-8 induction by the ribotoxin deoxynivalenol in human monocytes. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2006; 213(3): 235-244.

Leino M, Makela M, Reijula K, Haahtela T, Mussalo-Rauhamaa H, Tuomi T, Hintikka EL, Alenius H. Intranasal exposure to a damp building mould, Stachybotrys chartarum, induces lung inflammation in mice by satratoxin-independent mechanisms. Clin Exp Allergy 2003; 33(11): 1603-1610.

Huttunen K, Hyvarinen A, Nevalainen A, Komulainen H, Hirvonen MR. Production of proinflammatory mediators by indoor air bacteria and fungal spores in mouse and human cell lines. Environ Health Perspect 2003; 111(1): 85-92.

Dong W, Azcona-Olivera JI, Brooks KH, Linz JE, Pestka JJ. Elevated gene expression and production of interleukins 2, 4, 5, and 6 during exposure to vomitoxin (deoxynivalenol) and cycloheximide in the EL-4 thymoma. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1994; 127(2): 282-290.

Ouyang YL, Azcona-Olivera JI, Murtha J, Pestka JJ. Vomitoxin-mediated IL-2, IL-4, and IL-5 superinduction in murine CD4+ T cells stimulated with phorbol ester calcium ionophore: relation to kinetics of proliferation. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1996; 138(2): 324-334.

Zhou HR, Harkema JR, Yan D, Pestka JJ. Amplified proinflammatory cytokine expression and toxicity in mice co-exposed to lipopolysaccharide and the trichothecene vomitoxin (deoxynivalenol). J Toxicol Environ Health A 1999; 57(2): 115-136.

Wong SS, Zhou HR, Marin-Martinez ML, Brooks K, Pestka JJ. Modulation of IL1-beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha secretion and mRNA expression by the trichothecene vomitoxin in the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line. Food Chem Toxicol 1998; 36(5): 409-419.

Chung YJ, Jarvis B, Pestka J. Modulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced proinflammatory cytokine production by satratoxins and other macrocyclic trichothecenes in the murine macrophage. J Toxicol Environ Health A 2003; 66(4): 379-391.

Sugita-Konishi Y, Pestka JJ. Differential upregulation of TNF-alpha. IL-6, and IL-8 production by deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) and other 8-ketotrichothecenes in a human macrophage model. J Toxicol Environ Health A 2001; 64(8): 619-636.

Chung YJ, Jarvis B, Pestka J. Modulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced proinflammatory cytokine production by satratoxins and other macrocyclic trichothecenes in the murine macrophage. J Toxicol Environ Health A 2003; 66(4): 379-391.

Islam Z, Pestka JJ. LPS priming potentiates and prolongs proinflammatory cytokine response to the trichothecene deoxynivalenol in the mouse. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 2006; 211: 53-63.

Chung YJ, Yang GH, Islam Z, Pestka JJ. Up-regulation of macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and complement 3A receptor by the trichothecenes deoxynivalenol and satratoxin G. Toxicology 2003; 186: 51-65.

Wang H, Yadav JS. Global gene expression changes underlying Stachybotrys chartarum toxin-induced apoptosis in murine alveolar macrophages: evidence of multiple signal transduction pathways. Apoptosis 2007; 12(3): 535-548.

Pestka J, Zhou HR. Toll-like receptor priming sensitizes macrophages to proinflammatory cytokine gene induction by deoxynivalenol and other toxicants. Toxicol Sci 2006; 92(2): 445-455.

Zhou HR, Islam Z, Pestka JJ. Induction of competing apoptotic and survival signaling pathways in the macrophage by the ribotoxic trichothecene deoxynivalenol. Toxicol Sci 2005; 87(1): 113-122

Zhou HR, Jia Q, Pestka JJ. Ribotoxic stress response to the trichothecene deoxynivalenol in the macrophage involves the SRC family kinase Hck. Toxicol Sci 2005; 85(2): 916-926.

Kinser S, Li M, Jia Q, Pestka JJ. Truncated deoxynivalenol-induced splenic immediate early gene response in mice consuming (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Nutr Biochem 2005; 16(2): 88-95.

Pestka JJ, Uzarski RL, Islam Z. Induction of apoptosis and cytokine production in the Jurkat human T cells by deoxynivalenol: role of mitogen-activated protein kinases and comparison to other 8-ketotrichothecenes. Toxicology 2005; 206(2): 207-219.

Nusuetrong P, Yoshida M, Tanitsu MA, Kikuchi H, Mizugaki M, Shimazu K, Pengsuparp T, Meksuriyen D, Oshima Y, Nakahata N. Involvement of reactive oxygen species and stress-activated MAPKs in satratoxin H-induced apoptosis. Eur J Pharmacol 2005; 507(1-3): 239-246.

Jia Q, Zhuo HR, Bennink M, Pestka JJ. Docosahexaenoic acid attenuates mycotoxin-induced immunoglobulin A nephropathy, interleukin-6 transcription, and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in mice. J Nutr 2004; 134(12): 3343-3349.

Moon Y, Pestka JJ. Deoxynivalenol-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation and IL-6 expression in mice suppressed by fish oil. J Nutr Biochem 2003; 14(12): 717-726.

Chung YZ, Zhou HR, Pestka JJ. Transcriptional and posttranscriptional roles for p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in upregulation of TNF-alpha expression by deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin). Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2003; 193(2): 188-201

Deva R, Shankaranarayanan P, Ciccoli R, Nigam S. Candida albicans induces selectively transcriptional activation of cyclooxygenase-2 in HeLa cells: pivotal roles of Toll-like receptors, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and NF-kappa B. J Immunol 2003; 171(16): 3047-3055.

Zhou HR, Lau AS, Pestka JJ. Role of double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase R (PKR) in deoxynivalenol-induced ribotoxic stress response. Toxicol Sci 2003; 74(2): 335-344.

Moon Y, Pestka JJ. Vomitoxin-induced cyclooxygenases 2 gene expression in macrophages mediated by activation of ERK and p38 but not JNK mitogen-activated protein kinases. Toxicol Sci 2002; 69(2): 373-382.

Moon Y, Uzarski R, Pestka JJ. Relationship of trichothecene structure to COX-2 induction in the macrophage: selective action of type B (8-keto) trichothecenes. J Toxicol Environ Health A2003; 66(20): 1967-1983.

Yang GH, Jarvis BB, Chung YJ, Pestka JJ. Apoptosis induction by the satratoxins and other trichothecene mycotoxins: relationship to ERK, p38 MAPK, and SAPK/JNK activation. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2000; 164(2): 149-160.

Shifrin VI, Anderson P. Trichothecene mycotoxins trigger a ribotoxic stress response that activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and induces apoptosis. J Biol Chem 1999; 274(20): 13985-13992.

Beta Glucans

Iossifova YY, Reponen T, Bernstein DI, Levin L, Kalra H, Campo P, Villareal M, Lockey J, Hershey GKKK, LeMasters G. House dust (1-3)-B-D-glucan and wheezing in infants. Allergy 2007: 62: 504-513.

Rachini A, Pietrella D, Lupo P, Torosantucci A, Chiani P, Bromuro C, Proietti C, Bistoni F, Cassone A, Vecchiarelli A. An anti-B-glucan monoclonal antibody inhibits growth and capsule formation of Cryptococcus neoformans in vitro and exerts therapeutic, anticryptococcal activity in vivo. Infection and Immunity 2007; 75(11): 5085-5094.

Garlatti V, Belloy N, Martin L, Lacroix M, Matsushita M, Endo Y, Fujita T, Fontecilla-Camps JC, Arlaud GJ, Thielens NM, Gaboriaud C. Structural insights into the innate immune recognition specificities of L- and H-ficolins. EMBO J 2007; 26(2): 623-633.

Ma YG, Cho MY, Zhao M, Park JW, Matsushita M, Fujita T, Lee BL. Human mannose-binding lectin and L-ficolin function as specific pattern recognition proteins in the lectin activation pathway of complement. J Biol Chem 2004; 279(24): 25307-25312.

Bruel KF, Kougias P, Rice PJ, Wei D, De Ponti K, Wang J, Laffan JJ, Li C, Kalbfleisch J, Williams DL. Anterior pituitary cells express pattern recognition receptors for fungal glucans: implications for neuroendocrine immune involvement in response to fungal infections. Neuroimmunomodulation 2004; 11(1): 1-9.

Brown GD, Herre J, Williams DL, Willment JA, Marshall AS, Gordon S. Dectin-1 mediates the biological effects of beta-glucans. J Exp Med 2003; 197(9): 1119-1124.

Yadav M, Schorey JS. The beta-glucan receptor dectin-1 functions together with TLR2 to mediate macrophage activation by mycobacteria. Blood 2006; 108(9): 3168-3175.

Luhm J, Langenkamp U, Hensel J, Frohn C, Brand JM, Hennig H, Rink L, Koritke P, Wittkopf N, Williams DL, Mueller A. Beta-(1->3)-D-glucan modulates DNA binding of nuclear factors kappaB, AT and IL-6 leading to an anti-inflammatory shift of the IL-1beta/IL-1 receptor antagonist ratio. BMC Immunol 2006; 7: 5.

Lowe EP, Wei D, Rice PJ, Li C, Kalbfleisch J, Browder IW, Williams DL. Human vascular endothelial cells express pattern recognition receptors for fungal glucans which stimulates nuclear factor kappaB activation and interleukin 8 production. Winner of the Best Paper Award from the Gold Medal Forum. Am Surg 2002; 68(6): 508-517.

Kougias P, Wei D, Rice PJ, Ensley HE, Kalbfleisch J, Williams DL, Browder IW. Normal Human fibroblasts express pattern recognition receptors for fungal (1->3)-beta-D-glucans. Infect Immun 2001; 69(6): 3933-3938.

Douwes J, Siebers R, Wouters I, Doekes G, Fitzharris P, Crane J. Endotoxin, (1-> 3)-beta-D-glucans and fungal extra-cellular polysaccharides in New Zealand homes: a pilot study. Ann Agric Environ Med 2006; 13(2): 361-365.

Giovannangelo ME, Gehring U, Nordling E, Oldenwening M, van Rijswijk K, de Wind S, Hoek G, Heinrich J, Bellander T, Brunekreef B. Levels and determinants of beta(1->3)-glucans and fungal extracellular polysaccharides in house dust of (pre-) school children in three European countries. Environ Int 2007; 33(1): 9-16.

Gehring U, Douwes J, Doekes G, Koch A, Bischof W, Fahlbusch B, Richter K, Wichmann HE, Heinrich J, INGA Study Group. Indoor factors and genetics in asthma. Beta(1->3)-glucan in house dust of German homes: housing characteristics, occupant behavior, and relations with endotoxins, allergens, and molds. Environ Health Perspect 2001; 109(2): 139-144.

Chew GL, Douwes J, Doekes G, Higgins KM, van Strien R, Spithoven J, Brunekreef B. Fungal extracellular polysaccharides, beta (1->3)-glucans and culturable fungi in repeated sampling of house dust. Indoor Air 2001; 11(3): 171-178.

Young SH, Roberts JR, Antonini JM. Pulmonary exposure to 1, 3-beta-glucan alters adaptive immune responses in rats. Inhal Toxicol 2006; 18(11): 865-874.

Thorn J, Rylander R. Airways inflammation and glucan in a rowhouse area. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998; 157: 1798-1803.

Brown GD. Dectin-1: a signaling non-TLR pattern-recognition receptor. Nature Reviews Immunology 2006; 6: 33-43.

Robinson MJ, Sancho D, Slack EC, LeibundGut-Landmann S, Reis e Sousa C. Myeloid C-type lectins in innate immunity. Nature Immunology 2006; 7(12): 1258-1264.

McCann F, Carmona E, Puri V, Pagano RE, Limper AH. Macrophage internalization of fungal-B-glucans is not necessary for initiation of related inflammatory responses. Infection and Immunity 2005; 73(10): 6340-6349.

Kataoka K, Muta T, Yamazaki S, Takeshige K. Activation of macrophages by linear (1,3)-beta-D-glucans. Implications for the recognition of fungi by innate immunity. J Biol Chem 2002; 277(39): 36825-36831.

Palma AS, Feizi T, Zhang Y, Stoll MS, Lawson AM, Diaz-Rodriguez E, Campanero-Rhodes MA, Costa J, Gordon S, Brown GD, Chai W. Ligands for the beta-glucan receptor, dectin-1, assigned using “designer” microarrays of oligosaccharide probes (neoglycolipids) generated from glucan polysaccharides. J Biol Chem 2006; 281(9): 5771-5779.

Herre J, Willment JA, Gordon S, Brown GD. The role of dectin-1 in antifungal immunity. Crit Rev Immunol 2004; 24(3): 193-203.

Taylor PR, Tsoni SV, Willment JA, Dennehy KM, Rosas M, Findon H, Haynes K, Steele C, Botto M, Gordon S, Brown GD. Dectin-1 is required for beta-glucan recognition and control of fungal infection. Nat Immunol 2007; 8(1): 31-38.

Willment JA, Marshall AS, Reid DM, Williams DL, Wong SY, Gordon S, Brown GD. The human beta-glucan receptor is widely expressed and functionally equivalent to murine dectin-1 on primary cells. Eur J Immunol 2005; 35(5): 1539-1547.

Taylor PR, Brown GD, Reid DM, Willment JA, Martinez-Pomares L, Gordon S, Wong SY. The beta-glucan receptor, dectin-1, is predominantly expressed on the surface of cells of the monocyte/macrophage and neutrophil lineages. J Immunol 2002; 169(7): 3879-3882.

Brown GD, Taylor PR, Reid DM, Willment JA, Williams DL, Martinez-Pomares L, Wong SY, Gordon S. Dectin-1 is a major beta-glucan receptor on macrophages. J Exp Med 2002; 196(3): 407-412.

Thornton BP, Vetvicka V, Pitman M, Goldman RC, Ross GD. Analysis of the sugar specificity and molecular location of the beta-glucan-binding lectin site of complement receptor type 3 (CD11b/CD18). J Immunol 1996; 156(3): 1235-1246.

Ozment-Skelton TR, Goldman MP, Gordon S, Brown GD, Williams DL. Prolonged reduction of leukocyte membrane-associated dectin-1 levels following beta-glucan administration. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2006; 318(2): 540-546.

Herre J, Gordon S, Brown GD. Dectin-1 and its role in the recognition of beta-glucans by macrophages. Mol Immunol 2004; 40(12): 869-876.

Adachi Y, Ishii T, Ikeda Y, Hoshino A, Tamura H, Aketagawa J, Tanaka S, Ohno N. Characterization of beta-glucan recognition site on C-type lectin, dectin 1. Infect Immun 2004; 72(7): 4159-4171.

McGreal EP, Rosas M, Brown GD, Zamze S, Wong SY, Gordon S, Martinez-Pomares L, Taylor PR. The carbohydrate-recognition domain of dectin-2 is a C-type lectin with specificity for high mannose. Glycobiology 2006; 16(5): 422-430.

C-Type Lectins

Weiss AA, Iyer SS. Glycomics aims to interpret the third molecular language of cells. Microbe 2007; 2(10): 489-497.

Hamvas RMJ, Johnson M, Vliegar AM, Ling C, Sherriff A, Wade A, Klein NJ, Turner MW, The ALSPAC Study Team, Webster ADB. Role of mannose binding lectin in the prevention of mycoplasma infection. Infection and Immunity 2005; 73(8): 5238-5240.

Endo Y, Takahashi M, Fujita T. Lectin complement system and pattern recognition. Immunobiology 2006; 211(4): 283-293.

Zhu Y, Ng PM, Wang L, Ho B, Ding JL. Diversity in lectins enables immune recognition and differentiation of wide spectrum of pathogens. Int Immunol 2006; 18(12): 1671-1680.

Valera I, Vigo AG, Alonso S, Barbolla L, Crespo MS, Fernandez N. Peptidoglycan and mannose-based molecular patterns trigger the arachidonic acid cascade in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. J Leukoc Biol 2007; 81(4): 925-933.

Netea MG, Gow NA, Munro CA, Bates S, Collins C, Ferwerda G, Hobson RP, Bertram G, Hughes HB, Jansen T, Jacobs L, Buurman ET, Gijzen K, Williams DL, Torensma R, McKinnon A, MacCallum DM, Odds FC, Van der Meer JW, Brown AJ, Kullberg BJ. Immune sensing of Candida albicans requires cooperative recognition of mannans and glucans by lectin and Toll-like receptors. J Clin Invest 2006; 116(6): 1642-1650.

Gijzen K, Canbi A, Torensma R, Figdor CG. C-type lectins on dendritic cells and their interaction with pathogen-derived and endogenous glycoconjugates. Curr Protein Pept Sci 2006; 7(4): 283-294.

van Kooyk Y, Engering A, Lekkerkerker AN, Ludwig IS, Geijtenbeek TB. Pathogens use carbohydrates to escape immunity induced by dendritic cells. Curr Opin Immunol 2004; 16(4): 488-493.

LeibundGut-Landmann S, Grob O, Robinson MJ, Osorio F, Slack EC, Tsoni SV, Schweighoffer E, Tybulewicz V, Brown GD, Ruland J, e Sousa CR. Syk- and CARD9-dependent coupling of innate immunity to the induction of T helper cells that produce interleukin 17. Nature Immunology 2007; 8(6): 630-638.

Monari C, Bistoni F, Casadevall A, Pericolini E, Pietrella D, Kozel TR, Vecchiarelli A. Glucuronoxyomannan, a microbial compound, regulates expression of costimulatory molecules and production of cytokines in macrophages. J Infect Dis 2005; 191(1): 127-137.

Douwes J, van der Sluis B, Doekes G, van Leusden F, Wijnands L, van Strien R, Verhoeff A, Brunekreef B. Fungal extracellular polysaccharides in house dust as a marker for exposure to fungi: relations with culturable fungi, reported home dampness, and respiratory symptoms. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999; 103(3 Pt 1): 494-500.

Toscano MA, Bianco GA, Ilarregui JM, Croci DO, Correale J, Herandez JD, Zwirner NW, Poirier F, Riley EM, Baum LG, Rabinovich GA. Differential glycosylation of Th1, Th2 and Th-17 effector cells selectively regulates susceptibility to cell death. Nature Immunology 2007; 8(8): 825-834.

Palm NW, Medzhitov R. Antifungal defense turns 17. Nature Immunology 2007; 8(6): 549-551.

Kang YS, Do Y, Lee HK, Park SH, Cheong C, Lynch RM, Loeffler JM, Steinman RM, Park CG. A dominant complement fixation pathway for pneumococcal polysaccharides initiated by SIGN-R1 interacting with C1q. Cell 2006; 125(1): 47-58.

Kang YS, Yamazaki S, Iyoda T, Pack M, Bruening SA, Kim JY, Takahara K, Inaba K, Steinman RM, Park CG. SIGN-R1, a novel C-type lectin expressed by marginal zone macrophages in spleen, mediates uptake of the polysaccharide dextran. Int Immunol 2003; 15(2): 177-186.

Mansour MK, Latz E, Levitz SM. Cryptococcus neoformans glycoantigens are captured by multiple lectin receptors and presented by dendritic cells. J Immunol 2006; 176(5): 3053-3061.

Gantner BN, Simmons RM, Canavera SJ, Akira S, Underhill DM. Collaborative induction of inflammatory responses by dectin-1 and Toll-like receptor 2. J Exp Med 2003; 197(9): 1107-1117.

Brown GD, Herre J, Williams DL, Willment JA, Marshall AS, Gordon S. Dectin-1 mediates the biological effects of beta-glucans. J Exp Med 2003; 197(9): 1119-1124

Brown GD. Macrophage receptors and innate immunity: insights from dectin-1. Novartis Found Symp 2006; 279: 114-123.

Brown GD. Dectin-1: a signaling non-TLR pattern-recognition receptor. Nat Rev Immunol 2006; 6(1): 33-43.

Yadav M, Schorey JS. The beta-glucan receptor dectin-1 functions together with TLR2 to mediate macrophage activation by mycobacteria. Blood 2006; 108(9): 3168-3175.

Viriyakosol S, Fierer J, Brown GD, Kirkland TN. Innate immunity to the pathogenic fungus Coccidioides posadasii is dependent on Toll-like receptor 2 and dectin-1. Infect Immun 2005; 73(3): 1553-1560.

Pyz E, Marshall AS, Gordon S, Brown GD. C-type lectin-like receptors on myeloid cells. Ann Med 2006; 38(4): 242-251.

Gross O, Gewies A, Finger K, Schafer M, Sparwasser T, Peschel C, Forster I, Ruland J. Card9 controls a non-TLR signaling pathway for innate anti-fungal immunity. Nature 2006; 442(7103): 651-656.

Weis WI, Taylor ME, Drickamer K. The C-type lectin superfamily in the innate system. Immunol Rev 1998; 163: 19-34.

McGreal EP, Martinez-Pomares L, Gordon S. Divergent roles for C-type lectins expressed by cells of the innate immune system. Mol Immunol 2004; 41(11): 1109-1121.

Kanazawa N. Dendritic cell immunoreceptors: C-type lectin receptors for pattern-recognition and signaling on antigen-presenting cells. J Dermatol Sci 2007; 45(20): 77-86.

Robinson MJ, Sancho D, Slack EC, LeibundGut-Landmann S, Reis e Sousa C. Myeloid C-type lectins in innate immunity. Nat Immunol 2006; 7(12): 1258-1265.

Geijtenbeek TB, van Vliet SJ, Engering A, ‘t Hart BA, van Kooyk Y. Self- and nonself-recognition by C-type lectins on dendritic cells. Annu Rev Immunol 2004; 22: 33-54.

Cambi A, Figdor CG. Dual function of C-type lectin-like receptors in the immune system. Curr Opin Cell Biol 2003; 15(5): 539-546.

McGreal Ep, Miller JL, Gordon S. Ligand recognition by antigen-presenting cell C-type lectin receptors. Curr Opin Immunol 2005; 17(1): 18-24.

Hofer E, Sobanov Y, Brostjan C, Lehrach H, Duchler M. The centromeric part of the human natural killer (NK) receptor complex: lectin-like receptor genes expressed in NK, dendritic and endothelial cells. Immunol Rev 2001; 181: 5-19.

Inflammation

Huttunen K, Hyvarinen A, Nevalainen A, Komulainen H, Hirvonen MR. Production of proinflammatory mediators by indoor air bacteria and fungal spores in mouse and human cell lines. Environmental Health Perspectives 2003; 111:85-92.

Ochiai E, Kamei K, Hiroshima K, Watanabe A, Hashimoto Y, Sato A, Ando A. The pathogenicity of Stachybotrys chartarum. Jpn J Med Mycol 2005; 46: 109-117.

Grab DJ, Nyarko E, Barat NC, Nikolskaia OV, Dumler JS. Anaplasma phagocytophilum-Borrelia burgdorferi coinfection enhances chemokine, cytokine, and matrix metalloprotease expression by human brain mirovascular endothelial cells. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 2007; 14(11): 1420-1424.

Vukanic ZS, Colic M, Dimitrijevic M. Effect of pentoxifylline on differentiation and maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells in vitro. Int Immunopharmacol 2007; 7(2): 167-174.

Netea MG, Van der Meer JWM, Sutmuller RP, Adema GJ, Kullberg BJ. From the Th1/Th2 paradigm towards a Toll-like receptor/T-helper bias. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2005; 49(10): 3991-3996.

Islam Z, Harkems JR, Pestka JJ. Satratoxin G from the black mold Stachybotrys chartarum evokes olfactory sensory neuron loss and inflammation in the murine nose and brain. Envir Health Perpe 2006; 114(7): 1099-1107.

Islam Z, Amuzie CJ, Harkema JR, Pestka JJ. Neurotoxicity and inflammation in the nasal airways of mice exposed to the macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxins roridin A: kinetics and potentiation by bacterial lipopolysaccharide co-exposure. ToxSci Advance Access May 2004.

Creasia DA, Thurman JD, Jones LJ, Nealley ML, York CG, Wannemacher RW, Bunner DL. Acute inhalation toxicity of T-2 mycotoxin in mice. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 1987; 8: 230-235.

Rand TG, Flemming J, Miller JD, Womiloju TO. Comparison of inflammatory responses in mouse lungs exposed to atranones A and C from Stachybotrys chartarum. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 2006; 69: 1-13.

van der Graff CAA, Netea MG, Verschueren I, van der Meer JWM, Kullberg BJ. Differential cytokine production and Toll-like receptor signaling pathways by Candida albicans blastoconidia and hyphae. Infection and Immunity 2005; 73(11): 7458-7464.

Huttunen K, Hyvarinen A, Nevalainen A, Komulainen H, Hirvonen MR. Production of proinflammatory mediators by indoor air bacteria and fungal spores in mouse and human cell lines. Environmental Health Perspectives 2003; 111(1): 85-92.

Jiang H, Chess L. Regulation of immune responses by T cells. N Engl J Med 2006; 354: 1166-1176.

Kay AB. Natural Killer T cells and asthma. N Engl J Med 354(11): 1186-1188.

Akbari O, Faul JL, Hoyte EG, Berry GJ, Wahlstrom J, Kronenberg M, DeKruyff RH, Umestsu DT. CD4+ invariant T-cell-receptor+ natural killer T cells in bronchial asthma. N Engl J Med 2006; 354(11): 1117-1129.

Flemming J, Hudson B, Rand TG. Comparison of inflammatory and cytotoxic lung responses in mice after intratracheal exposure to spores of two different Stachybotrys chartarum strains. Toxicological Sciences 2004; 78: 267-275.

Stoeger T, Reinhard C, Takenaka S, Schroeppel A, Karg E, Ritter B, Heyder J, Schulz H. Instillation of six different ultrafine carbon particles indicates a surface area threshold dose for acute lung inflammation in mice. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006; 114(3): 328-333.

Veranth JM, Moss TA, Chow JC, Labban R, Nichols WK, Walton JC, Watson JG, Yost GS. Correlation of in vitro cytokine responses with the chemical composition of soil-derived particulate matter. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006; 114(3): 341-349.

Nurkiewicz TR, Porter DW, Barger M, Millecchia L, Rao MK, Marvar PJ, Hubbs AF, Castranova V, Boegehold MA. Systemic microvascular dysfunction and inflammation after pulmonary particulate matter exposure. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006; 114(3): 412-419.

Rand TG, Giles S, Flemming J, Miller JD, Puniani E. Inflammatory and cytotoxic responses in mouse lungs exposed to purified toxins from building isolated Penicillium brevicompactum dierckx and p. chrysogenum thom. Toxicological Sciences 2005; 87(1): 213-222.

Donohue M, Wei W, Wu J, Zawia NH, Hud N, De Jesus V, Schmechel D, Hettick JM, Beezhold DH, Vesper S. Characterization of nigerlysin c, hemolysin produced by Aspergillus niger, and effect on mouse neuronal cells in vitro. Toxicology 2006; 219: 150-155.

Rao CY, Burge HA, Brain JD. The time course of responses to intratracheally instilled toxic Stachybotrys chartarum spores in rats. Mycopathologia 2000; 149: 27-34.

Marc MM, Korosec P, Kosnick M, Kern I, Flezar M, Suskovic S, Sorli J. Complement factors C3a, C4a, and C5a in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. American J of Respir Cell and Molecular Biology 2004; 31: 31-33.

Kelk P, Claesson R, Hanstrom L, Lerner UH, Kalfas S, Johansson A. Abundant secretion of bioactive interleukin-1b by human macrophages induced by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxins. Infection and Immunity 2005; 73(1): 453-458.

Romani L. Immunity to fungal infections. Nature Reviews Immunology 2004; 4: 11-23.

Kohl J, Baelder R, Lewkowich IP, Pandey MK, Hawlisch H, Wang L, Best J, Herman NS, Sproles AA, Zwirner J, Whirsett JA, Gerard C, Sfyroera G, Lambris JD, Wills-Karp M. A regulatory role for the C5a anaphylatoxins in type 2 immunity in asthma. Journal of Clinical Investigation 2006; 116(3): 783-796.

Desjardins AE. Trichothecenes: from yellow rain to green wheat. ASM News 2003; 69(4): 182-185.

McCrae KC, Rand T, Shaw RA, Mason C, Oulton MR, Hastigns C, Cherlet T, Thliveris JA, Mantsch HH, MacDonald J, Scott JE. Analysis of pulmonary surfactant by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy following exposure to Stachybotrys chartarum (atra) spores. Chemistry and Physics of Lipids 2001; 110: 1-10.

Vesper SJ, Vesper MJ. Possible role of fungal hemolysins in sick building syndrome. Advances in Applied Microbiology 2004; 55: 191-213.

Jussila JJ. Inflammatory responses in mice after intratracheal instillation of microbes isolated from moldy buildings. PhD dissertation 01/24/03 National Public Health Institute, Finland.

Vesper SJ, Vesper MJ. Stachylysin may be a cause of hemorrhaging in humans exposed to Stachybotrys chartarum. Infection and Immunity 2002; 70(4): 2065-2069.

Mason CD, Rand TG, Oulton M, MacDonald JM, Scott JE. Effects of Stachybotrys chartarum (atra) conidia and isolated toxin on lung surfactant production and homeostasis. Natural Toxins 1998; 6: 27-33.

Nikulin M, Reijula K, Jarvis BB, Veijalainen P, Hintikka EL. Effects of intranasal exposure to spores of Stachybotrys atra in mice. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 1997; 35: 182-188.

Wilkins CK, Larsen ST, Hammer M, Poulsen OM, Wolkoff P, Nielsen GD. Respiratory effects in mice exposed to airborne emissions from Stachybotrys chartarum and implications for risk assessment. Pharmacology & Toxicology 1998; 83: 112-119.

Pulmonary Inflammatory Response

Shimizu T, Kida Y, Kuwano K. Mycoplasma pneumoniae-derived lipopeptides induce acute inflammatory responses in the lungs of mice. Infection and Immunity 2008; 76(1): 270-277.

Balducci E, Micossi LG, Soldaini E, Rappuoli R. Expression and selective up-regulation of toxin-related mono ADP-ribosytransferases by pathogen-associated molecular patterns in alveolar epithelial cells. FEBS Lett 2007; 581(22): 4199-4201.

Karoly ED, Li Z, Dailey LA, Hyseni X, Huang YCT. Up-regulation of tissue factor in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells after ultrafine particle exposure. Environmental Health Perspectives 2007; 115(4): 535-540.

Chakrabarty K, Wu W, Booth JL, Duggan ES, Nagle NN, Coggeshall KM, Metcalf JP. Human lung innate immune response to Bacillus anthracis spore infection. Infection and Immunity 2007; 75(8): 3729-3738.

Bird L. Regulatory circuit in the lungs. Reviews 2006; 6: 426.

Heninger S, Drysdale M, Lovchik J, Hutt J, Lipscomb MF, Koehler TM, Lyons CR. Toxin-deficient mutants of Bacillus anthracis are lethal in a murine model for pulmonary anthrax. Infection and Immunity 2006; 74(11): 6067-6074.

Dose Response

Park JH, Cox-Ganser J, Rao C, Kreiss K. Fungal and endotoxin measurements in dust associated with respiratory symptoms in a water-damaged office building. Indoor Air 2006; 16(3): 192-203.

Potera C. Red tide chokehold. Environmental Health Perspectives 2007; 115(4): A188.

Genomics

Kassim SY, Gharib SA, Mecham BH, Birkland TP, Parks WC, McGuire JK. Individual matrix metalloproteinases control distinct transcriptional responses in airway epithelial cells infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Infection and Immunity 2007; 75(12): 5640-5650.

Humphreys TL, Li L, Li X, Janowicz DM, Fortney KR, Zhao Q, Li W, McClintick J, Katz BP, Wilkes DS, Edenberg HJ, Spinola SM. Dysregulated immune profiles for skin and dendritic cells are associated with increased host susceptibility to Haemophilus ducreyi infection in human volunteers. Infection and Immunity 2007; 75(12): 5686-5697.

Khalya A, Chion T, Qiang H, Agarwal N, Cooper NG. Microarray reveals complement components are regulated in the serum-deprived rat retinal ganglion cell line. Mol Vis 2007; 13: 293-308.

Avni O, Lee D, Macian F, Szabo SJ, Glimcher LH, Rao A. T H cell differentiation is accompanied by dynamic changes in histone acetylation of cytokine genes. Nature Immunology 2002; 3(7): 643-651.

Bachvaroff TR, Concepcion GT, Rogers CR, Herman EM, Delwiche CF. Dinoflagellate expressed sequence tag data indicate massive transfer of chloroplast genes to the nuclear genome. Protist 2004; 155(1): 65-78.

Hackett JD, Scheetz TE, Yoon HS, Soares MB, Bonaldo MF, Casavant TL, Bhattacharya D. Insights into dinoflagellate genome through expressed sequence tag analysis. BMC Genomics 2005; 6(1): 80.

Qadri F, Raqib R, Ahmed F, Rahman T, Wenneras C, Das SK, Alam NH, Mathan MM, Svennerholm AM. Increased levels of inflammatory mediators in children and adults infected with Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2002; 9(2): 221-229.

Jirtle RL, Skinner MK. Environmental epigenomics and disease susceptibility. Nature Reviews 2007; 8: 253-262.

Fang H, Xie Q, Boneva R, Fostel J, Perkins R, Tong W. Gene expression profile exploration of a large dataset on chronic fatigue syndrome. Pharmacogenomics 2006; 7(3): 429-440.

Meyer GKA, Neetz A, Brandes G, Tsikas D, Butterfield JH, Just I, Gerhard R. Clostridium difficile toxins A and B directly stimulate human mast cells. Infection and Immunity 2007; 75(8): 3868-3876.

Tang Y, Nee AC, Lu A, Ran R, Sharp FR. Blood genomic expression profile for neuronal injury. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 2003; 23: 310-319.

Karoly ED, Li Z, Dailey LA, Hyseni X, Huang YCT. Up-regulation of tissue factor in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells after ultrafine particle exposure. Environmental Health Perspectives 2007; 115(4): 535-540.

Clifton DR, Rydkina E, Freeman RS, Sahni SK. NF-kB activation during Rickettsia rickettsii infection of endothelial cells involves the activation of Catalytic IkB kinases IKKa and IKKb and phosphorylation-proteolysis of the inhibitor protein IkBa. Infection and Immunity 2005; 73(1): 155-165.

Fostel J, Boneva R, Lloyd A. Exploration of the gene expression correlates of chronic unexplained fatigue using factor analysis. Pharmacogneomics 2006; 7(3): 441-454.

Perrin RM, Fedorova ND, Bok JW, Cramer Jr RA, Wortman JR, Kim HS, Nierman WC, Keller NP. Transcriptional regulation of chemical diversity in Aspergillus fumigatus by laea. PloS Pathogens 2007; 3(4): 0508-0517.

Complement

Kang YS, Do Y, Lee HK, Park SH, Cheong C, Lynch RM, Loeffler JM, Steinman RM, Park CG. A dominant complement fixation pathway for pneumococcal polysaccharides initiated by SIGN-R1 interacting with C1q. Cell 2006; 125(1): 47-58.

Brown JS, Hussell T, Gilliland SM, Holden DW, Paton JC, Ehrenstein MR, Walport MJ, Botto M. The classical pathway is the dominant complement pathway for innate immunity to Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002; 99(26): 16969-16974.

Farina C, Aloisi F, Meinl E. Astrocytes are active players cerebral innate immunity. Trends Immunol 2007; 28(3): 138-145.

Gross O, Gewies A, Finger K, Schafer M, Sparwasser T, Peschel C, Forster I, Ruland J. Card9 controls a non-TLR signaling pathway for innate anti-fungal immunity. Nature 2006; 442(7103): 651-656.

Mycobacteria

Torvinen E, Meklin T, Torkko P, Suomalainen S, Reiman M, Katila ML, Paulin L, Nevalainen A. Mycobacteria may be culprits in toxic building syndrome. Appl Environ Microbiol 2006; 72: 6822-6824.

Doz E, Rose S, Nigou J, Gilleron M, Puzo G, Erard F, Ryffel B, Quesniaux VF. Acylation determines the toll-like receptor (TLR)-dependent positive versus TLR2-, mannose receptor-, and SIGNR1-independent negative regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines by mycobacterial lipomannan. J Bio Chem 2007; 282(36): 26014-26025.

Gilleron M, Nigou J, Nicolle D, Quesniaux V, Puzo G. The acylation state of mycobacterial lipomannans modulates innate immunity response through toll-like receptor 2. Chem Biol 2006; 13(1): 39-47.

Yadav M, Clark L, Schorey JS. Macrophage’s proinflammatory response to a mycobacterial infection is dependent on sphingosine kinase-mediated activation of phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C, protein kinase C, ERK1/2, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. J Immunol 2006; 176(9): 5494-5503.

Yadav M, Schorey JS. The beta-glucan receptor dectin-1 functions together with TLR2 to mediate macrophage activation by mycobacteria. Blood 2006; 108(9): 3168-3175.

Quesniaux VJ, Nicolle DM, Torres D, Kremer L, Guerardel Y, Nigou J, Puzo G, Erard F, Ryffel B. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-dependent-postive and TLR2-independent-negative regulation of proinflammatory cytokines by mycobacterial lipomannans. J Immunol 2004; 172(7): 4425-4434.

Mannose

1. Ampel NM, Nelson D, Li L, Dionne SO, Lake DF, Simmona KA, Pappagianis D. The mannose receptor mediates the cellular immune response in human coccidioidomycosis. Infection and Immunity 2005; 73(4): 2554-2555.

2. Mullin NP, Hall KT, Taylor ME. Characterization of ligand binding to a carbohydrate-recognition domain of the macrophage mannose receptor. J Biol Chem 1994; 269(45): 28405-28413.

3. Prigozy TI, Sieling PA, Clemens D, Stewart PL, Behar SM, Porcelli SA, Brenner MB, Modlin RL, Kronenberg M. The mannose receptor delivers lipoglycan antigens to endosomes for presentation to T cells by CD1b molecules. Immunity 1997; 6(2): 187-197.

4. Montaner LJ, da Silva RP, Sun J, Sutterwala S, Hollinshead M, Vaux D, Gordon S. Type 1 and type 2 cytokine regulation of macrophage endocytosis: differential activation by IL-4/IL-13 as opposed to IFN-gamma or IL-10. J Immunol 1999; 162(8): 4606-4613.

5. East L, Isacke CM. The mannose receptor family. Biochim Biophys Acta 2002; 1572(2-3): 364-386.

6. Sheikh H, Yarwood H, Ashworth A, Isacke CM. Endo180, an endocytic recycling glycoprotein related to the macrophage mannose receptor is expressed on fibroblasts, endothelial cells and macrophages and functions as a lectin receptor. J Cell Sci 2000; 113(Pt 6): 1021-1032.

7. Howard MJ, Isacke CM. The C-type leptin receptor Endo180 displays and recycling properties distinct from other members of the mannose receptor family. J Biol Chem 2002; 277(35): 32320-32331.

8. Roberts RL, Barbieri MA, Ullrich J, Stahl PD. Dynamics of rab5 activation in endocytosis and phagocytosis. J Leukoc Biol 2000; 68(5): 627-632.

9. Wainszelbaum MJ, Proctor BM, Pontow SE, Stahl PD, Barbieri MA. IL4/PGE2 induction of an enlarged early endosomal compartment in mouse macrophages is Rab5-dependent. Exp Cell Res 2006; 312(12): 2238-2251.

10. Burgdorf S, Kautz A, Bohnert V, Knolle PA, Kurts C. Distinct pathways of antigen uptake and intracellular routing in CD4 and CD8 T cell activation. Science 2007; 316(5824): 612-616.

11. Kjeken R, Mousavi SA, Brech A, Griffiths G, Berg T. Wortmannin-sensitive trafficking steps in the endocytic pathway in rat liver endothelial cells. Biochem J 2001; 357(Pt 2): 497-503.

12. Diebold SS, Plank C, Cotton M, Wagner E, Zenke M. Mannose receptor-mediated gene delivery into antigen presenting dendritic cells. Somat Cell Mol Genet 2002; 27(1-6): 65-74.

13. Jin Y, Fuller L, Ciancio G, Burke GW 3rd, Tzakis AG, Ricordi C, Miller J, Esquenzai V. Antigen presentation and immune regulatory capacity of immature and mature-enriched antigen presenting (dendritic) cells derived from bone marrow. Hum Immunol 2004; 65(2): 93-103.

14. Engering AJ, Cella M, Fluitsma DM, Hoefsmit EC, Lanzavecchia A, Pieters J. Mannose receptor mediated antigen uptake and presentation in human dendritic cells. Adv Exp Med Biol 1997; 417: 183-187.

15. Sallusto F, Cella M, Danieli C, Lanzavecchia A. Dendritic cells use macropinocytosis and the mannose receptor to concentrate macromolecules in the major histocompatibility complex class II compartment: downregulation by cytokines and bacterial products. J Exp Med 1995; 182(2): 389-400.

16. Tan MC, Mommaas AM, Drijfhout JW, Jordens R, Onderwater JJ, Verwoerd D, Mulder AA, van der Heiden AN, Ottenhoff TH, Cella M, Tulp A, Neefjes JJ, Koning F. Mannose receptor mediated uptake of antigens strongly enhances HLA-class II restricted antigen presentation by cultured dendritic cells. Adv Exp Med Biol 1997; 417: 171-174.

17. Inaba K, Turley S, Iyoda T, Yamaide F, Shimoyama S, Reis e Sousa C, Germain RN, Mellman I, Steinman RM. The formation of immunogenic major histocompatibility complex class II-peptide ligands in lysosomal compartments of dendritic cells is regulated by inflammatory stimuli. J Exp Med 2000; 191(6): 927-936.

18. Kaisho T, Takeuchi O, Kawai T, Hoshino K, Akira S. Endotoxin-induced maturation of MyD88-deficient dendritic cells. J Immunol 2001; 166(9): 5688-5694.

19. Boes M, Bertho N, Cerny J, Op den Brouw M, Kirchhausen T, Ploegh H. T cells induce extended class II MHC compartments in dendritic cells in a toll-like receptor-dependent manner. J Immunol 2003; 171(8): 4081-4088.

20. Vyas JM, Kim YM, Artavanis-Tsakonas K, Love JC, Van der Veen AG, Ploegh HL. Tubulation of class II MHC compartments is microtubule dependent and involves multiple endolysosomal proteins in primary dendritic cells. J Immunol 2007; 178(11): 7199-7210.

21. Chow A, Toomre D, Garrett W, Mellman I. Dendritic cell maturation triggers retrograde MHC class II transport from lysosomes to the plasma membrane. Nature 2002; 418(6901): 988-994.

22. Mahnke K, Guo M, Lee S, Sepulveda H, Swain SL, Nussenzweig M, Steinmann RM. The dendritic cell receptor for endocytosis, DEC-205, can recycle and enhance antigen presentation via major histocompatibility complex class II-positive lysosomal compartments. J Cell Biol 2000; 151(3): 673-684.

23. Koning F. Enhancement of HLA class II restricted antigen presentation by mannose-receptor-mediated uptake. Biochem Soc Trans 1997; 25(2): 664-665.

24. Engering AJ, Cella M, Fluitsma D, Brockhaus M, Hoefsmit EC, Lanzavecchia A, Pieters J. The mannose receptor functions as a high capacity and broad specificity antigen receptor in human dendritic cells. Eur J Immunol 1997; 27(9): 2417-2425.

25. Kim TH, Nah JW, Cho MH, Park TG, Cho CS. Receptor-mediated gene delivery into antigen presenting cells using mannosylated chitosan/DNA nanoparticles. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2006; 6(9-10): 2796-2803.

26. Netea MG, Gow NA, Munro CA, Bates S, Collins C, Ferwerda G, Hobson RP, Bertram G, Hughes HB, Jansen T, Jacobs L, Buurman ET, Gijzen K, Williams DL, Torensma R, McKinnon A, MacCallum DM, Odds FC, Van der Meer JW, Brown AJ, Kullberg BJ. Immune sensing of Candida albicans requires cooperative recognition of mannans and glucans by lectin and Toll-like receptors. J Clin Invest 2006; 116(6): 1642-1650.

27. Clancy CJ, Jaber RA, Leather HL, Wingard JR, Staley B, Wheat LJ, Cline CL, Rand KH, Schain D, Baz M, Nguyen MH. Bronchoalveolar lavage galactomannan in diagnosis of invasive pulmonary Aspergillosis among solid-organ transplant recipients. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2007; 45(6): 1759-1765.

28. Monari C, Bistoni F, Casadevall A, Pericolini E, Pietrella D, Kozel TR, Vecchiarelli A. Glucuronoxyomannan, a microbial compound, regulates expression of costimulatory molecules and production of cytokines in macrophages. J Infect Dis 2005; 191(1): 127-137.

29. Lam JS, Huang H, Levitz SM. Effect of differential N-linked and O-linked mannosylation on recognition of fungal antigens by dendritic cells. PLoS ONE 2007; 2(10): e1009.

30. Ramakrishna V, Treml JF, Vitale L, Connolly JE, O’Neill T, Smith PA, Jones CL, He LZ, Goldstein J, Wallace PK, Keler T, Endres MJ. Mannose receptor targeting of tumor antigen pmel17 to human dentritic cells directs anti-melanoma T cell responses via multiple HLA molecules. J Immunol 2004; 172(5): 2845-2852.

31. Doz E, Rose S, Nigou J, Gilleron M, Puzo G, Erard F, Ryffel B, Quesniaux VF. Acylation determines the toll-like receptor (TLR)-dependent positive versus TLR2-, mannose receptor-, and SIGNR1-independent negative regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines by mycobacterial lipomannan. J Bio Chem 2007; 282(36): 26014-26025.

32. Burgdorf S, Lukacs-Kornek V, Kurts C. The mannose receptor mediates uptake of soluble but not of cell-associated antigen for cross-presentation. J Immunol 2006; 176(11): 6770-6776.

33. Farina C, Aloisi F, Meinl E. Astrocytes are active players cerebral innate immunity. Trends Immunol 2007; 28(3): 138-145.

Gilleron M, Nigou J, Nicolle D, Quesniaux V, Puzo G. The acylation state of mycobacterial lipomannans modulates innate immunity response through toll-like receptor 2. Chem Biol 2006; 13(1): 39-47.

Quesniaux VJ, Nicolle DM, Torres D, Kremer L, Guerardel Y, Nigou J, Puzo G, Erard F, Ryffel B. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-dependent-postive and TLR2-independent-negative regulation of proinflammatory cytokines by mycobacterial lipomannans. J Immunol 2004; 172(7): 4425-4434.

Allavena P, Chieppa M, Monti P, Piemonti L. From pattern recognition receptor of homeostasis: the double-faced macrophage mannose receptor. Crit Rev Immunol 2004; 24(3): 179-192.

Toll

1. Roeder A, Kirschning CJ, Rupec RA, Schaller M, Weindl G, Korting HC. Toll-like receptors as key mediators in innate antifungal immunity. Med Mycol 2004; 42(6): 485-498.

2. Zhang X, Kimura Y, Fang C, Zhou L, Sfyroera G, Lambris JD, Wetsel RA, Miwa T, Song WC. Regulation of Toll-like receptor-mediated inflammatory response by complement in vivo. Blood 2007; 110(1): 228-236.

3. Netea MG, Ferwerda G, van der Graaf CA, Van der Meer JW, Kullberg BJ. Recognition of fungal pathogens by toll-like receptors. Curr Pharm Des 2006; 12(32): 4195-4201.

4. Netea MG, Van der Meer Jw, Kullberg BJ. Role of the dual interaction of fungal pathogens with pattern recognition receptors in the activation and modulation of host defence. Clin Microbiol Infect 2006; 12(5): 404-409.

5. Bellocchio S, Montagnoli C, Bozza S, Gaziano R, Rossi G, Mambula SS, Vecchi A, Mantovani A, Levitz SM, Romani L. The contribution of the Toll-like/IL-1 receptor superfamily to innate and adaptive immunity to fungal pathogens in vivo. J Immunol 2004; 172(5): 3059-3069.

6. Yauch LE, Mansour MK, Shoham S, Rottman JB, Levitz SM. Involvement of CD14, toll-like receptors 2 and 4, and MyD88 in the host response to the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans in vivo. Infect Immun 2004; 72(9): 5373-5382.

7. Netea MG, Van der Graaf C, Van der Meer JW, Kullberg BJ. Recognition of fungal pathogens by Toll-like receptors. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2004; 23(9): 672-676.

8. Roeder A, Kirschning CJ, Rupec RA, Schaller M, Korting HC. Toll-like receptors and innate antifungal responses. Trends Microbiol 2004; 12(1): 44-49.

9. Netea MG, Gow NA, Munro CA, Bates S, Collins C, Ferwerda G, Hobson RP, Bertram G, Hughes HB, Jansen T, Jacobs L, Buurman ET, Gijzen K, Williams DL, Torensma R, McKinnon A, MacCallum DM, Odds FC, Van der Meer JW, Brown AJ, Kullberg BJ. Immune sensing of Candida albicans requires cooperative recognition of mannans and glucans by lectin and Toll-like receptors. J Clin Invest 2006; 116(6): 1642-1650.

10. Doz E, Rose S, Nigou J, Gilleron M, Puzo G, Erard F, Ryffel B, Quesniaux VF. Acylation determines the toll-like receptor (TLR)-dependent positive versus TLR2-, mannose receptor-, and SIGNR1-independent negative regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines by mycobacterial lipomannan. J Bio Chem 2007; 282(36): 26014-26025.

11. Bsibsi M, Ravid R, Gveric D, van Noort JM. Broad expression of Toll-like receptors in human central nervous system. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2002; 61(11): 1013-1021.

12. Olson JK, Miller SD. Microglia initiate central nervous system innate and adaptive immune responses through multiple TLRs. J Immunol 2004; 173(6): 3916-3924.

Gilleron M, Nigou J, Nicolle D, Quesniaux V, Puzo G. The acylation state of mycobacterial lipomannans modulates innate immunity response through toll-like receptor 2. Chem Biol 2006; 13(1): 39-47.

Gantner BN, Simmons RM, Canavera SJ, Akira S, Underhill DM. Collaborative induction of inflammatory responses by dectin-1 and Toll-like receptor 2. J Exp Med 2003; 197(9): 1107-1117.

Quesniaux VJ, Nicolle DM, Torres D, Kremer L, Guerardel Y, Nigou J, Puzo G, Erard F, Ryffel B. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-dependent-postive and TLR2-independent-negative regulation of proinflammatory cytokines by mycobacterial lipomannans. J Immunol 2004; 172(7): 4425-4434.

Viriyakosol S, Fierer J, Brown GD, Kirkland TN. Innate immunity to the pathogenic fungus Coccidioides posadasii is dependent on Toll-like receptor 2 and dectin-1. Infect Immun 2005; 73(3): 1553-1560.

Ishihara S, Rumi MA, Ortega-Cava CF, Kazumori H, Kadowaki Y, Ishimura N, Kinoshita Y. Therapeutic targeting of toll-like receptors in gastrointestinal inflammation. Curr Pharm Des 2006; 12(32): 4215-4228.

Romagne F. Currnet and future drugs targeting one class of innate immunity receptors: the Toll-like receptors. Drug Discov Today 2007; 12(1-2): 80-87.

Kanzler H, Barrat FJ, Hessel Em, Coffman RL. Therapeutic targeting of innate immunity with Toll-like receptor agonists and antagonists. Nat Med 2007; 13(5): 552-559.

Rezaei N. Therapeutic targeting of pattern-recognition receptors. Int Immunopharmacol 2006; 6(6): 863-869.

Braedel S, Radsak M, Einsele H, Latge JP, Michan A, Loeffler J, Haddad Z, Grigoleit U, Schild H, Hebart H. Aspergillus fumigatus antigens activate innate immune cells via toll-like receptors 2 and 4.

van der Graaf CA, Netea MG, Verschueren I, van der Meer J, Kullberg BJ. Differential cytokine production and toll-like receptor signaling pathways by Candida albicans blastoconidia and hyphae. Infect Immun 2005; 73(11): 7458-7464.

Netea MG, Warris A, Van der Meer JW, Fenton MJ, Verver-Janssen TJ, Jacobs LE, Andresen T, Verweij PE, Kullberg BJ. Aspergillus fumigatus evades immune recognition during germination through loss of toll-like receptor-4-mediated signal transduction. J Infect Dis 2003; 188(2): 320-326.

Levitz SM. Interactions of Toll-like receptors with fungi. Microbes Infect 2004; 6(15): 1351-1355.

MASP 2

1. Liu Y, Endo Y, Iwaki D, Nakata M, Matsushita M, Wada I, Inoue K, Munakata M, Fujita T. Human M-ficolin is a secretory protein that activates the lectin complement pathway. J Immunol 2005; 175(5): 3150-3156.

2. Matsushita M, Endo Y, Hamasaki N, Fujita T. Activation of the lectin complement pathway by ficolins. Int Immunopharmacol 2001; 1(3): 359-363.

3. Matsushita M, Fujita T. The role of ficolins in innate immunity. Immunobiology 2002; 205(4-5): 490-497.

4. Wallis R, Lynch NJ, Roscher S, Reid KB, Schwaeble WJ. Decoupling of carbohydrate binding and MASP-2 autoactivation in variant mannose-binding lectins associated with immunodeficiency. J Immunol 2005; 175(10): 6846-6851.

5. Chen CB, Wallis R. Two mechanisms for mannose-binding protein modulation of the activity of its associated serine proteases. J Biol Chem 2004; 279(25): 26058-26065.

6. Gal P, Harmat V, Kocsis A, Bian T, Barna L, Ambrus G, Vegh B, Balczer J, Sim RB, Naray-Szabo G, Zavodszky P. A true autoactivating enzyme. Structural insight into mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease-2 activations. J Biol Chem 2005; 280(39): 33435-33444.

7. Harmat V, Gal P, Kardos J, Szilagyi K, Ambrus G, Vegh B, Naray-Szabo G, Zavodszky P. The structure of MBL-associated serine protease-2 reveals that identical substrate specificities of C1s and MASP-2 are realized through different sets of enzyme-substrate interactions. J Mol Biol 2004; 342(5): 1533-1546.

8. Sorensen R, Thiel S, Jensenius JC. Mannan-binding-lectin-associated serine proteases, characteristics and disease associations. Springer Semin Immunopathol 2005; 27(3): 299-319.

9. Schwaeble W, Dahl MR, Thiel S, Stover senius JC. The mannan-binding lectin-associated serine proteases (MASPs) and MAp19: four components of the lectin pathway activation complex encoded by two genes. Immunobiology 2002; 205(4-5): 455-466.

10. Kuraya M, Ming Z, Liu X, Matsushita M, Fujita T. Specific binding of L-ficolin and H-ficolin to apoptotic cells leads to complement activation. Immunobiology 2005; 209(9): 689-697.

11. Ma YG, Cho MY, Zhao M, Park JW, Matsushita M, Fujita T, Lee BL. Human mannose-binding lectin and L-ficolin function as specific pattern recognition proteins in the lectin activation pathway of complement. J Biol Chem 2004; 279(24): 25307-25312.

12. Frankenberger M, Schwaeble W, Ziegler-Heitbrock L. Expression of M-ficolin in human monocytes and macrophages. Mol Immunol 2008; 45(5): 1424-1430.

13. Endo Y, Matsushita M, Fujita T. Role of ficolin in innate immunity and its molecular basis. Immunobiology 2007; 212(4-5): 371-379.

14. Garlatti V, Martin L, Gout E, Reiser JB, Fujita T, Arlaud GJ, Thielens NM, Gaboriaud C. Structural basis for innate immune sensing by M-ficolin and its control by a pH-dependent conformational switch. J Biol Chem 2007; 282(49): 35814-35820.

15. Garlatti V, Belloy N, Martin L, Lacroix M, Matsushita M, Endo Y, Fujita T, Fontecilla-Camps JC, Arlaud GJ, Thielens NM, Gaboriaud C. Structural insights into the innate immune recognition specificities of L- and H-ficolins. EMBO J 2007; 26(2): 623-633.

16. Runza VL, Hehlgans T, Echtenacher B, Zahringer U, Schwaeble WJ, Mannel DN. Localization of the mouse defense lectin ficolin B in lysosomes of activated macrophages. J Endotoxin Res 2006; 12(2): 120-126.

17. Wang CC, Yim KW, Poon TC, Choy KW, Chu CY, Lui WT, Lau TK, Rogers MS, Leung TN. Innate immune response by ficolin binding in apoptotic placenta is associated with the clinical syndrome of preeclampsia. Clin Chem 2007; 53(1): 42-52.

18. Lynch NJ, Roscher S, Hartung T, Morath S, Matsushita M, Maennel DN, Kuraya M, Fujita T, Schwaeble WJ. L-ficolin specifically binds to lipoteichoic acid, a cell wall constituent of Gram-positive bacteris, and activates the lectin pathway of complement. J Immunol 2004; 172(2): 1198-1202.

19. Frederiksen PD, Thiel S, Larsen CB, Jensenius JC. M-ficolin, an innate immune defence molecule, binds patterns of acetyl groups and activates complement. Scand J Immunol 2005; 62(5): 462-473.

20. Moller-Kristensen M, Jensenius JC, Jensenius JC, Jensen L, Thielens N, Rossi V, Arlaud G, Thiel S. Levels of mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease-2 in healthy individuals. J Immunol Methods 2003; 282(1-2): 159-167.

21. Takahashi M, Mori S, Shigeta S, Fujita T. Role of MBL-associated serine protease (MASP) on activation of the lectin complement pathway. Adv Exp Med Biol 2007; 598: 93-104.

22. Girija UV, Dodds AW, Roscher S, Roscher S, Reid S, Reid KB, Wallis R. Localization and characterization of the mannose-binding lectin (MBL)-associated-serine protease-2 binding site in rat ficolin-A: equivalent binding sites within the collagenous domains of MBLs and ficolins. J Immunol 2007; 179(1): 455-462.

23. Wallis R, Dodds AW, Mitchell DA, Sim RB, Reid KB, Schwaeble WJ. Molecular interactions between MASP-2, C4, and C2 and their activation fragments leading to complement activation via the lectin pathway. J Biol Chem 2007; 282(11): 7844-7851.

24. Endo Y, Nakazawa N, Liu Y, Iwaki D, Takahashi M, Fujita T, Nakata M, Matsushita M. Carbohydrate-binding specificities of mouse ficolin A, a splicing variant of ficolin A and ficolin B and their complex formation with MASP-2 and sMAP. Immunogenetics 2005; 57(11): 837-844.

25. Edgar PF. Hucolin, a new corticosteroid-binding protein from human plasma with structural similarities to ficolins, transforming growth factor-beta 1-binding proteins. FEBS Lett 1995; 375(1-2): 159-161.

26. Harumiya S, Omori A, Sugiura T, Fukumoto Y, Tachikawa H, Fujimoto D. EBP-37, a new elastin-binding protein in human plasma: structural similarity to ficolins, transforming growth factor-beta 1-binding proteins. J Biochem 1995; 117(5): 1029-1035.

Iwaki D, Kanno K, Takahashi M, Endo Y, Lynch NJ, Schwaeble WJ, Matsushita M, Okabe M, Fujita T. Small mannose-binding lectin-associated protein plays a regulatory role in the lectin complement pathway. J Immunol 2006; 177(12): 8626-8632.

28. Moller-Kristensen M, Thiel S, Sjoholm A, Matsushita M, Jensenius JC. Cooperation between MASP-1 and MASP-2 in the generation of C3 convertase through the MBL pathway. Int Immunol 2007; 19(2): 141-149.

Thiel S. Complement activating soluble pattern recognition molecules with collagen-like regions, mannan-binding lectin, ficolins and associated proteins. Mol Immunol 2007; 44(16): 3875-3877.

Acetylation

1. Faro J, Chen Y, Jhaveri P, Oza P, Spear GT, Lint TF, Gewurz H. I-Ficolin binding and lectin pathway activation by acetylated low-density lipoprotein. Clin Exp Immunol 2007; [Epub ahead of print].

2. Krarup A, Thiel S, Hansen A, Fujita T, Jensenius JC. L-ficolin is a pattern recognition molecule specific for acetyl groups. J Biol Chem 2004; 279(46): 47513-47519.

3. Kimura M, Matsumoto G, Shingu Y, Yoneyama K, Yamaguchi I. The mystery of the trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferase gene. Analysis of the region around Tri101 and characterization of its homologue from Fusarium sporotrichioides. FEBS Lett 1998; 435(2-3): 163-168.

4. McCormick SP, Alexander NJ, Trapp SE, Hohn TM. Disruption of TRI101, the gene encoding trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferase, from Fusarium sporotrichioides. Appl Environ Microbiol 1999; 65(12): 5252-5256.

5. Kimura M, Kaneko I, Komiyama M, Takatsuki A, Koshino H, Yoneyama K, Yamaguchi I. Trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferase protects both the producing organism and transformed yeast from related mycotoxins. Cloning and characterization of Tri101. J Biol Chem 1998; 273(3): 1654-1661.

6. Tokai T, Fujimura M, Inoue H, Aoki T, Ohta K, Shibata T, Yamaguchi I, Kimura M. Concordant evolution of trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferase and an rDNA species phylogeny of trichothecene-producing fusaria and other ascomycetous fungi. Microbiology 2005; 151(Pt 2): 509-519.

7. Kimura M, Tokai T, Matsumoto G, Fujimura M, Hamamoto H, Yoneyama K, Shibata T, Yamaguchi I. Trichothecene nonproducer Gibberella species have both functional and nonfunctional 3-O-acetyltransferase genes. Genetics 2003; 163(2): 677-684.

8. McCormick SP, Alexander NJ, Proctor RH. Fusarium Tri4 encodes a multifunctional oxgenase required for trichothecene biosynthesis. Can J Microbiol 2006; 52(7): 636-642.

9. McCormick SP, Alexander NJ. Myrothecium roridum Tri4 encodes a multifunctional oxygenase required for three oxygenation steps. Can J Microbiol 2007; 53(5): 572-579.

10. Brown DW, McCormick SP, Alexander NJ, Procotor RH, Desjardins AE. Inactivation of a cytochrome P-450 is a determinant of trichothecene diversity in Fusarium species. Fungal Genet Biol 2002; 36(3): 224-233.

11. Kimura M, Shingu Y, Yoneyama K, Yamaguchi I. Features of Tri101, the trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferase gene, related to the self-defense mechanism in Fusarium graminearum. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1998; 62(5): 1033-1036.

12. McCormick SP, Hohn TM, Desjardins AE. Isolation and characterization of Tri3, a gene encoding 15-O-acetyltransferase from Fusarium sporotrichioides. Appl Environ Microbiol 1996; 62(2): 353-359.

13. Sundstol Eriksen G, Pettersson H, Lundh T. Comparative cytotoxicity of deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, their acetylated derivatives and de-epoxy metabolities. Food Chem Toxicol 2004; 42(4): 619-624.

14. Nnored WP, Riley RT, Meredith FI, Poling SM, Plattner RD. Instability of N-acetylated fumonisin B1 (FA1) and the impact on inhibition of ceramide synthase in rat liver slices. Food Chem Toxicol 2001; 39(11): 1071-1078.

15. Humpf HU, Schmelz EM, Meredith FI, Vesper H, Vales TR, Wang E, Menaldino DS, Liotta DC, Merrill AH Jr. Acylation of naturally occurring and synthetic 1-deoxysphinganines by ceramide synthase. Formation of N-palmitoyl-aminopentol produces a toxic metabolite of hydrolyzed fumonisin, AP1, and a new category of ceramide synthase inhibitor. J Biol Chem 1998; 273(30): 19060-19064.

Frederiksen PD, Thiel S, Larsen CB, Jensenius JC. M-ficolin, an innate immune defence molecule, binds patterns of acetyl groups and activates complement. Scand J Immunol 2005; 62(5): 462-473.

Rx C4a/activation C4

1. Hillmen P, Muus P, Duhrsen U, Risitano AM, Schubert J, Luzzatto L, Schrezenmeier H, Szer J, Brodsky RA, Hill A, Socie G, Bessler M, Rollins SA, Bell L, Rother RP, Young NS. Effect of the complement inhibitor eculizumab on thromboembolism in patients with patoxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Blood 2007; 110(12): 4123-4128.

2. Janssen BJ, Halff EF, Lambris JD, Gros P. Structure of compstatin in complex with complement component C3c reveals a new mechanism of complement inhibition. J Biol Chem 2007; 282(40): 29241-29247.

3. Kerr FK, O’Brien G, Quinsey NS, Whisstock JC, Boyd S, de la Banda MG, Kaiserman D, Matthews AY, Bird PI, Pike RN. Elucidation of the substrate specificity of the C1s protease of the classical complement pathway. J Biol Chem 2005; 280(47): 39510-39514.

4. Fattouch K, Bianco G, Speziale G, Sampognaro R, Lavalle C, Guccione F, Dioguardi P, Ruvolo G. Beneficial effects of C1 esterase inhibitor in ST-elevation myocardial infarction in patients who underwent surgical reperfusion: a randomized double-blind study. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2007; 32(2): 326-332.

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